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See: A A Biblical Structure of HistoryBiblical
Structure  of  History
The loss
of access to the unique Garden in Eden was primarily the loss of access to the unique tree which negated the effect of aging, so that the natural effect as it was in all animals, from which humans had been exempted by that tree because of their special role to represent the Creator toward all for which they were given dominion over all, now sets a natural limit on human longevity. Some have taught that death did not exist before humanity sinned but this is from a misunderstanding of Romans 5:12 –
"...just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin,
and so death spread to all men because all sinned."
For Paul here is specifically referring to sin's effect on humanity, and only humanity. Death as a cellular life-limit is part of the natural God-designed structure of life and is an important source to renew the fertile top soil of our earth.
loss of access
to the tree of life.
Genesis Four
had warned Cain of his first-born rivalry toward Abel. Cain is warned to exercise control over his feelings for like a predator ready to pounce it would bring him down if not controlled.
"The LORD said to Cain, 'Why are you angry, and why has your face fallen?
[because God had not accepted his worship offering]
If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin* is crouching at the door.
Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it'."
Cain's failure to do so produces the first murder, and consequent division of humanity.
Genesis 4:6-7
*The selfish
instinct in his flesh
reply to Cain's fear dis-allows any instinctual retaliation (revenge) in next-of-kin justice, so common in subsequent human history (Genesis 4:15).
Eastward from the division
of the original Euphrates
and Tigris rivers.
Human Society Spreads...
Cain migrates eastward from the guarded gate-area of the Garden of God to which the family had previously brought their worship offerings.
"Then Cain went away from the presence of the LORD [the guarded gate of the Garden in Eden]
and settled in the land of Wandering, east of Eden."
Genesis 4:16.
Cain creates the first urban environment and it is in this circumstance that his descendants develop new technologies (4:17-22), presaging the historical superiority of urban civilization over rural.

Not 'by' the name of the Lord, as some say, but "upon" (לקרא), i.e.. begin to pray. This is NOT the origin of the term 'sons of God'. That term in the Hebrew context refers to angelic beings (fallen or otherwise) as in the mouth of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 3:25).
See: The Angels of God
This error has been used to teach two races (Cainites and Sethites) to explain the sin of Genesis 6:4 as actually being inter-marriage between believers and unbelievers, which is total nonsense!
 "To Seth also a son was born, and he called his name Enosh. At that time people began to call upon the name of the LORD." 
Genesis 4:26 ESV.
Thus after about 235 years, human awareness of God has now so deteriorated that they need to pray to God to communicate with Him.
(435-years according to the Septuagint Genesis which is based on older Hebrew copies; see Abrahamic Genealogy Table).
It is
an unbiblical and a false interpretation, however, that tries to prove a racial/religious division between Sethites and Cainites, as though humanity was divided into two groups – the good and the bad, and then interprets the term "sons of God" in Genesis Six as simply being the 'good' marrying the 'bad' (whereas its context treats it as the ultimate corruption).
This abuse of Scripture reflects only the racial/religious prejudice of those who propagate this view.
For our
understanding, the Spirit of God gives us an example of the use of the term 'sons of God', which precedes any human being –
God said to Job: "Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding.
Who determined its measurements—surely you know! Or who stretched the line upon it?
On what were its bases sunk, or who laid its cornerstone,
when the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
Job 38:4-7.
(It may also be helpful here to remember, concerning human history in the years ahead, that God has no limit in His array of agencies. Historical causation has pluralistic explanations. In other words, it is often not either-or but a mixture of causes that produce the subsequent events).
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See also: The Genesis Prologue
Google's Natural History


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