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 The Babel Dispersion 
( בּבל — bâbel = confusion )
A  Unique  Intervention  in  Human  History
All  data  subject  to  continuing  refinement.
not Babylon:
(bāb-ilû –
'gate of the gods')
See: Eridu note 5400BC
concerning its later
confusion with 'Babylon'

Psalm 24:1.
 A Very Natural Reaction 
For at least four generations the whole human race is now all together, moving defensively as one
over these successive generations, after the horrific year-long trauma of the Global Tsunami.
Their very
God's Guarantee Given
understandable human fear (associated with any weather occurrence that even hinted to Noah's family, and subsequently their descendants, at a possible replay of the horrific 370-day-crisis of the World Flood) had been specifically taken into account by God's Rainbow Promise of Never–Again for all humanity.
The reminder of this Covenant Promise continues today in the rainbow around the Throne of God (Revelation 4:3) and
it applies to any threat to the survival of the human race (including meteorite collision, or threat of Armageddon).
But confidence in God's promise always requires faith/trust toward God Himself more than in oneself!
Genesis 9:12-17.
this natural humanly-defensive-attempt in planning to construct a permanent one-ness/unity, as represented in their tower, rather than spreading out as God had instructed them, was a very understandable act of fearful distrust of the natural world, but it was also by implication so toward their caring Creator.

So after an
indefinite period of very slow migration down from the northern highlands lasting at least four generations (Arpachshad to Eber in Abram's genealogy) which had allowed for seasons of planting and harvesting in this process (Genesis 9:20), these descendants of Noah's family now eventually arrive on the flat plain of southern Mesopotamia (Shinar / 'country of two rivers'), most probably near the site of a city that is later in history known as Eridu.
"Then they said, 'Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the sky,
 and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth'."
Genesis 11:4.
The idea of its top reaching to God's Heaven is not what the Bible says. The term שָׁמַיִם (shâmayim) refers to sky, and it is likely that it was 'according to the heavens' which would simply refer to its twelve stories for the Zodiac (visible Milky-Way constellations), but their united organisational ability is referred to by God in their continuing defensive-reaction from the past trauma of the Global Tsunami as –
"And the LORD [YaHWeH] came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.
And the LORD [YaHWeH] said,
[to His angelic administration]*
"Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do.
And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.
Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."
So the LORD
[YaHWeH] dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city."
Genesis 11:5-8.
*Deuteronomy 32:8.
In God's response
to this distrust, language was the necessary target to block their common intention (by communication breakdown) and to therefore further motivate their global dispersion to repopulate the planet.
"Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of all the earth.
And from there the LORD dispersed them over the face of all the earth."
Genesis 11:9
Eventual Dispersion-Migration Routes:
These migration routes would probably also have been the routes along which the renewal of the earth's animal populations moved.
although the above map assumes a land route in general (such as Beringia across the Bering Strait from Asia/Siberia to America/Alaska), there is increasing evidence of the ancient use the clockwise sea currents of the north Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the peopling of the Americas (as has been shown by historian Gavin Menzies 2013).
In addition

See c.5600 BC
below on next page.
to human DNA, language relationships also provide a reflection of the global movements of human populations.
For instance –
The Roman Latin for fire 'ignis' is related to the Indian Sanskrit goddess of fire 'Agni' (modern Urdu for fire 'ag', is derived from this).
And the Latin word for father 'pater' is clearly related to its Sanskrit equivalent 'pitár', although separated by the immense distance between Italy and India and with no direct trade between.
The time and place where the migrating group separated into two, which later became the Latin and Sanskrit speakers, is not known.
I suspect
from these clues that both the Latin and Sanskrit speakers originated from the catastrophic collapse of the Bosphorus wall which caused the Black Sea basin flood about 5,600 BC, for the language of the Latin speaking farmers, who eventually settled as refugees on the flat plain of Latium (Lătĭŭm) beside the Tiber river in Italy, bears no relation to the languages of the Italic hill tribes at that time or to their aptitude in management. The fact that many centuries later God speaks to Israel, concerning their nationalist pride in His bringing them from Egypt, by making reference to the fact that His also brought the Philistines from Caphtor/Crete (of the Minoan civilization), which was caused by the horrific tsunami from the explosion of the volcanic island of Thera (its remains now called Santorini) indicates that God has used natural catastrophes in the past to propel the migrations of peoples.
"'Are you not like the Cushites to Me, O people of Israel?' declares the LORD.
'Did I not bring up Israel from the land of Egypt, and the Philistines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kir?'

Amos 9:7
It may also be of interest to note that the Biblical Hebrew term for Greeks, sons of 'Javan' (Genesis 10:4), is related to the name 'Ionian' for the earliest of the Greeks to settle in Greece.
The continued
migrations of people groups has largely been caused by the climate fluctuations arising from natural processes which then causes competition for limited resources, in which the less dominant are forced to migrate.
Note also that
the unique direct intervention of God to break-up humanity's Babel attempt to consolidate their unity was not in any way punitive, as is explained for us in Acts 17:26-27 through Paul's summary statement to the wise men of Athens
"He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth,
having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place,
that they should seek God
in the hope that they might feel their way toward Him and find Him.
Yet He is actually not far from each one of us."
"He made also of one blood every nation of men,
to dwell upon all the face of the earth
having ordained times before appointed, and the bounds of their dwellings
to seek the Lord, if perhaps they did feel after Him and find,
though, indeed, He is not far from each one of us,
for in Him we live, and move, and are;
as also certain of your poets have said: For of Him also we are offspring."
Designed vulnerability for pre-planned dependence so as to come to know Him!
In this dispersion
of the people, to form tribes and nations developing distinct languages and customs, human life-experience had changed forever from its origin in Eden, now with a far greater vulnerability to their environment and a consequently significantly reduced life-span within which to exercise their choices: and its inherent challenge to "feel their way toward Him and find Him" because of this vulnerability.
"For what can be known about God is plain to them [mankind], because God has shown it to them.
For His invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived,
ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made.
So they are without excuse.
For although they knew God, they did not honour Him as God or give thanks to Him,
but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools,
and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things
Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonouring of their bodies among themselves,
because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator,
who is blessed forever!
For this reason God gave them up to dishonourable passions.
For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature;
and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another,
men committing shameless acts with men
[homosexuality] and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error.
And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a debased mind to do what ought not to be done."
Sins are a consequence
and sign of unbelief.
They are the fruit of
the problem not the root.
Romans 1:19-28.
The natural process in this dispersion migration across the world eventually results in the visible variations among human beings of today. For instance, the oriental eye is actually the same as any other, but its epicanthic fold (the skin fold of the upper eyelid covering the inner angle of the eye) helped protect the eye from the dangerous freezing wind which threatened the eye-sight in their migration route from the Middle East and so those with more of this natural protection became the dominant strain on that route,
and likewise other features of variation in other directions.
this background, God's heart seeks those who trust Him enough to hear Him – and the family of TERAH, a descendant of HEBER, now comes into this focus.

 the Ancestor
In the
structure of the Genesis text (Gen.10:21-25) Abraham's ancestor Heber/עבר (B5 at the Babel Division in the graph above) is presented as the origin of the people-group called Hebrew, of whom "Abram the Hebrew" is its most famous representative.
Eber is apparently head of a family-group after the division at Babel (which bears his name in the English form 'Hebrew'), which social trauma of the Dispersion occurred at the time of the birth of his son Peleg ('division').

The theory has been put forward that 'Hebrew' originated from 'habiru' nomads; but the originating group was not so characterised, as the urban encounter with Rebecca and later Rachel's families, show.

Others have even tried to find its origin from 'crossing over' (Euphrates?) and then turned it into a religious term meaning 'conversion' which is so silly it does not deserve an answer.
This affirms the genealogy's purpose as specifically Abrahamic history, and that it is not a time-measure for general chronological purposes as it has sometimes been unfortunately used.

Also, the common theory that the group designation 'Hebrew' arose from meaning 'other side' as to their migratory origin from 'beyond' the Euphrates (from Ur) is not probable for the following reasons:
That meaning would have to have been specially relevant to the Canaanites, from whose language the Hebrew language is derived, and in which it could carry this meaning 'other side';
Abraham's migration to Canaan was not from Ur beyond the Euphrates, but southward from Haran where he had lived for years until the death of his father Terah;
That the major ancient international trade route at that time between Mesopotamia and Egypt ran through the Canaanite region would tend to not make Abraham a cultural oddity to them that would then have earned him a unique designation/epithet of 'other-side'-guy among the Canaanites.
this postulated origin of the term is not reasonable.

The following
graph illustrates the radical change to human life conditions illustrated in this family lineage (an average longevity drop of 55% at the Flood, primarily from physical change*) and, subsequently again, an eventual average 50% drop consequent after the Babel division/dispersion of humanity (from psycho-social change).
diet extension
after the Flood
Corrected Ancestral Table
of Abrahamic Lineage
The above graph shows the trend-line-changes (A-B and B-C) which occurred at the Genesis Flood (A10), and at the Babel Division of the human race (B5).  
to the Bible's Genesis record, the changes in average human longevity were directly associated with – 
1.  (A 10)
– from about 900 down to 400-years-old (probably from physical changes), a 55% drop;
2.  (B 5)
– from about 400 down to 200-years-old (probably due to psycho-social changes).

The reports

of the exceptional longevity of Li Ching Yuen (which cannot be fully verified) may simply point to the basic truth that longevity is essentially a product of lifestyle, for there is no longer any access of any kind to the original Tree of Life given in the beginning to neutralize the aging process because humanity was to fully represent God as His 'image'. But be on your guard however regarding the use of these reports to sell untested herbal concoctions.
to the immediate psycho-social effect of the Babel Dispersion, human longevity then still continues to drop from about 200-years to an average between 80 to 70 years of age depending on various factors.
The main unconformities which occur in the Abrahamic Ancestry graph above are longevity (yellow at A7 – Enoch) and marriage-age (blue at A10 – Noah, Enoch's great grandson, if no unknown generations are omitted).
It is also
worthy of note that these two age anomalies in Abraham's genealogy are the same two persons who alone are described in Scripture as having "walked with God" (Genesis 5:22; 6:9) and therefore these should be regarded as special cases and not affect the average.

Interesting but unverified
remember –
Chronology is
not the purpose of Abraham's genealogy. This is affirmed by its stylised structure of generations in the Genesis record (10–FLOOD–10). That is, the stylised nature of the Abraham's ancestral genealogy means that the number of generations cannot be used for chronological purposes as it does not necessarily include all generations ('father of...' = ancestor of...).
See: Postulated
Creation Dates
which make this error.
So, an understandably negative reaction to evolutionary theory of origins should not be allowed to colour our approach to precious Holy Scripture.
New Testament (in Luke) shows us that all our existing Hebrew copies of Genesis have lost one generation from this Genesis genealogy, which has unfortunately helped hide its stylised structure, and it has also lost the age factor of that particular ancestor ('Cainan').

If you have an interest
in plotting the migratory
origin associated with
your own family name
click here for help
This service has
no connection to this website
from the above Babel Division, the eventual diversity of languages, amplified by the continued migrations of people groups, is reflected in the table below for the Indo-European group alone.

 The languages of the Basques, Estonians, Hungarians and Finnish peoples of Europe are not Indo-European. 
These last two (Finnish and Hungarian) are variations of a much earlier common ancestral langauage.
Click the above graph for a full scale version for easier reading.
This Dispersion, and the wide variety of cultures that developed as a consequence, is likewise reflected (after money was invented, about 700 BC/BCE in the kingdom of Lydia in Anatolia/modern Turkey) in the variety of terms for each national currency used today –
  Name   Nations Using   Origin
  dinar   Jordan, Algeria, Serbia and Kuwaiti   This is a pretty straightforward truncation of the Latin word "denarius", which was a silver coin used in ancient Rome.
  dollar   the U.S.A., Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand, Singapore, etc.   from the Flemish or low German word "joachimsthal" referred to Joachim's valley where silver was once mined. Coins minted from this mine became "joachimsthaler", which was later shortened to "thaler" and eventually morphed into "dollar".
  florint   Hungary   The Hungarian forint comes from the word Italian "fiorino", a gold coin from Florence.The "fiorino" had a flower or "fiore" in Italian stamped on it.
  krona   Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Estonia, Czech Republic.   Many Scandinavian countries use a currency that derives from the Latin word "corona" meaning "crown". Sweden's Krona, Norway's Krone, Denmark's Krone, Iceland's Króna, and the the Estonian Kroon (now replaced by the euro), and the Czech Republic's Koruna all derive from the same Latin root
  lira   Italy and Turkey   From the Latin word "libra" meaning "pound".
  mark   Germany, Finland   Before the euro, the Deutsche mark and the Finnish markka also drew their names from units of weight.
  peso   Spain   The peso literally means "weight" in Spanish.
  pound   Britain, Egypt, Lebanon, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria   The British pound is derived from the Latin word "Poundus" meaning weight. Egypt, Lebanon, South Sudan, Sudan and Syria all call their currency pounds.
  rial   Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Yemen   The Latin word "regalis" meaning "royal", is the orgin for the Omai and Iranian "rial".
Similarly, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Yemen all use a currency called the "riyal".
Before the euro, Spain used "reals" as well.
  rand   South Africa   Like the dollar, South Africa's rand comes from the Dutch name ridge/edge for the South African area called "Witwatersrand" in Gauteng which is rich in gold.
  ringgit   Malaysia   When coins were minted in precious metals, thieves would shave off small portions of the metal to create new coins or sell the precious metal. To combat this, some countries began minting coins with jagged edges.The Malaysian word for jagged is "ringgit", the name of their currency.
  rouble   Russia, Belarus   Russia and Belarus' ruble are named after a measure of weight for silver.
  rupee   India, Pakistan, Indonesia   The Sanskrit word for wrought silver is "rupya", which lends its name to the Indian and Pakistani rupee, as well as Indonesia's rupiah.
  yuan   China, Japan, Korea   The Chinese character 圓, meaning "round" or "round coin" is responsible for the name of the Chinese Yuan, Japanese Yen and the Korean Won.
  zloty   Poland   "Zloty" is the Polish word meaning "golden".

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