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Moses  to  Joshua
blue pin Psalm 24:1
 All data subject to continuing refinement. 
18th Dynasty Dates: 
The dates below of the various rulers of Ancient Egypt are open to dispute because of uncertainty regarding the recording of the heliacal rise of the star Sothis in the reign of Amenhotep I. A papyrus from Amenhotep I's reign records this astronomical observation which, in principle, could be used to accurately correlate their chronology with our modern calendar, but to do this the latitude where the observation took place must be known. Unfortunately, this papyrus does not record the place of observation, although it may be assumed to have been taken in either Memphis or Heliopolis (near the delta), or in Thebes (near Luxor). These two latitudes give dates twenty years different, known as the High and Low chronologies, respectively.
THUTMOSE I dies. His full-royal daughter HATSHEPSUT and her half-brother husband (his half-royal son) AAKHEPERENRE THUTMOSE (II), reign together.
THUTMOSE II dies and Queen HATSHEPSUT rules all Egypt while her quarter-royal stepson MEN-KHEPER-RE THUTMOSE (III) is under age. (See note above).
The old view of Hatshepsut as a ruthless stepmother has been refuted by later discovery.
Alternate dates:
24 April 1479 – 1473 HATSHEPSUT as Regent for THUTMOSE III;
1473 – 1458/7 as Pharaoh and co-ruler with THUTMOSE III (See note above).
The final identification of the probable mummy of HATSHEPSUT by early 2007 AD gives us a view of her as a caring and politically astute ruler, overturning a long held older view of exploitive rule over a resentful stepson. It now appears that he only began to deface her monuments 20-years after her death, most probably to ensure popular acceptance of his less-royal son (AMENHOTEP II) as ruler. HATSHEPSUT referred affectionately to the common people as "my rekhyt [lapwings]" (a colloquial term for the common people from the common lapwings of the Nile marshes). Unlike many other rulers she appears to have valued the approval of the common people.
This strong-willed caring woman fits the Bible picture of the royal princess who dared to adopt an apparently abandoned Hebrew baby.

Wednesday, May 5: The date Noah's Ark grounds on Mount Ararat, calculated in error by 17th century Archbishop JAMES USSHER, assuming in error among other that Abram's genealogy may be used as chronology.
See: Adam to Abram
Genealogy Table
Mūsā موسى 1485
MOSES flees pharaoh THUTMOSE III (Ex.2:15) and goes into exile in Midian, rather than repudiate his Hebrew identity (with its religious implications) in exchange for amnesty for his crime.
"By faith he left Egypt, not being afraid of the anger of the king, for he endured as seeing Him who is invisible."
Hebrews 11:27.
THUTMOSE III achieves equal status with HATSHEPSUT's death and 20-years later defaces her monuments and has her name removed from anywhere in Egypt.
See: Moses' Depression
"For all our days pass away under Your wrath; we bring our years to an end like a sigh."
Psalm 90:9.
Psalm 90:17.
THUTMOSIS III undertakes seventeen campaigns in Palestine and Syria to impose Egyptian rule.
(In September 2014 and large number of Egyptian artifacts are discovered in a cave near Tel Halif, an ancient city roughly 10 miles northeast of Beersheba, affirming the high level of Egptian political and cultural influence in Canaan. The collection of artifacts shows that during the Late Bronze Age along with the local Canaanite culture, there were many elements of Egyptian culture adopted by the locals).
HATSHEPSUT (foster mother of Moses) dies.
Moses' Depression
In Midian – MOSES aged between 70 and 80 (Ps.90:10), writes Psalm 90 as a heartfelt prayer, out of his discouragement concerning lack of achievement and the futility of his life after such an advantageous Egyptian education and training (Ac.7:22). So, he cries out to God –
"Let the favour of the Lord our God be upon us,
And establish the work of our hands upon us; Yes, establish the work of our hands!"
Megiddo is defeated by a powerful Egyptian army led by Pharaoh THUTMOSE III himself ("Megiddo is worth a thousand cities"), on the '15th day of the first day of summer', so establishing the greatest empire in history up to this time.
Map of Egypt

In textual evidence from the reign of Amenhotep II, he claims to have sacrificed/executed seven Syrian princes in the temple of Amun at Karnak.
Alternatives: d. 1401/1397 BC 1450
Pharaoh THUTMOSE III dies
AAKHEPERURE AMENHOTEP II reigns over all Egypt.
From about
1450 to 1200 BC, the city-state of Ugarit (near modern Ras Shamra, Syria) is at its zenith and represents Canaanite High Culture, many aspects of which Israel later encountered in Canaan/Palestine. Some of the family vaults built under the stone houses show strong Mycenaean influence. Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery in great amounts has also been found. Their chief deity is El, corresponding to the Bible's אל / ʾĒl and 'Êl ‛Elyôn of Melchizedek (Gen.14:19), but very little attention is paid to Him in their texts; His son Ba'al effectively functioning as their chief deity. Their writing script is known today as alphabetic cuneiform (left-to-right, without vowels). Its grammar is very similar to that of Classical Arabic and Akkadian (the lingua franca of trade throughout the Near East during this time). Soon after 1200 BC Ugarit came to an end. Its fall coincided with the invasion of the Northern and Sea Peoples and certainly with earthquakes and famines. The city itself was destroyed in 1180/70 BC apparently by marauding 'Sea Peoples'.
The type of culture that Israel was to encounter in its migration to Palestine/Canaan and concerning which God later gives special prohibitions.
Hardening of Pharaoh
God 'châzaq' / 'reinforces' / 'gives-courage' to Pharaoh's heart to counter-act / nullify the natural intimidatory / bullying effect of the plagues of God so that Pharaoh's decisions are true to his real character.
Exodus 14:8;
Romans 9:17-18.
MOSES returns from Midian en route he is saved from death by the (long delayed/neglected) circumcision of his son by his Midianite wife ZIPPORAH (Ex.4:24-26) using the Egyptian flint-knife method.
"At a lodging place on the way the Lord met him and sought to put him to death. Then Zipporah took a flint and cut off her son's foreskin and touched Moses' feet with it and said, 'Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me!' 
So He [God] let him alone."
Exodus 4:24-26.
Nine Plagues on Egypt after each refusal by Pharaoh to let Israel go to worship God in the desert. Moses confronts Pharaoh AMENHOTEP II and after the Tenth Plague of the killing of all firstborn (as Israel eats Passover) gains his permission for them to leave Egypt.
"In this manner you shall eat it: with your belt fastened, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand.
And you shall eat it in haste. It is the LORD's Passover."
Exodus 12:11.
"And when your children say to you, 'What do you mean by this service?' you shall say –
'It is the sacrifice of the LORD's Passover, for He passed over the houses of the people of Israel in Egypt,
when He struck the Egyptians but spared our houses'.
And the people bowed their heads and worshiped."
Exodus 12:26-27.
Eastern Mediterranean –
The Minoan holy island 'Thera' north of Crete explodes, causing a huge tsunami/tidal-wave and helping the complete collapse of Minoan civilization. (Caphtor=Crete, origin of the Philistines, Amos 9:7, after whom Palestine is later named).
The Atlantis legend is born.
The Passover Statutes 
1. By whom and when may it be eaten – 1.
Only circumcised households may eat it (Ex.12:48).
To be eaten only on the 14th day of the First Month (Abib/Nisan) at twilight (Lev.23:5).
Those unclean through touching the dead must eat it exactly one month later at twilight (Num.9:6).
Any qualified person who fails to keep the feast must be expelled from the nation (Num.9:13).
2. What and how may it be eaten – 2.
As a sign of their haste in leaving Egypt, only unleavened bread is to be eaten (Ex.12:18).
No bone of the lamb is to be broken and it is to be eaten with bitter herbs (Num.9:11-12).
All passover sacrifices may only be slain at one central venue which the Lord appoints (Deut.16:5-7).
Nothing of the lamb may be left until the morning (Ex.34:25; Num.9:12; Deut.16:4).
Israel Year 1
"The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, 'This month shall be for you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year for you'."
(Exodus 12:1-2).
Even after the time of Christ, Jewish priest-historian Josephus refers to this month as the first month of the year (Ant. book III, chapter VIII, para.4), that is, the current Babylonian year used by Judaism probably became the Jewish custom only after Christ, during formation of their Talmud.
First Month (Abib/Nisan)
The people of Israel ask their neighbouring Egyptians for gold and silver jewellery, and clothing, as instructed by God through MOSES, and receive abundantly from them (Ex.11:2-3).
"The time that the people of Israel lived in Egypt was 430 years. At the end of 430 years, on that very day, all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt."
(Exodus 12:40-41).
Day 15, under a full moon: As the Egyptians are burying their dead, Israel moves out from the Rameses assembly point (probably modern Tell el-Dab'a/Qantir, about 17 miles SW of Tanis/Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar), orderly in their tribal groups under tribal standards/banners, following the leadership of MOSES and AARON to Succoth (See Moses' record 'Journal of the Journey').
Israel under MOSES migrates from Succoth southward in apparent error (from the common route out of Egypt to Palestine) to become hemmed in between the mountains and the Red sea, so Pharaoh sends his elite chariot group to force them back to subjugation. This sets the scene for Israel to experience the power of God's deliverance through the Red Sea and destruction of the military force that could have threatened them in their future journey.
This day is
now exactly 430-years after Jacob/Israel arrived in Egypt and 480 years before the Jerusalem Temple is built. (See 1 Kg.6:1; Ex.12:40-41; Ac.7:6; Gal.3:17).
Israel celebrates the destruction of the elite Egyptian chariotry in the sea behind them, and now marches southward from their sea-crossing through the Sinai Peninsula.
attacks migrating Israel.
JOSHUA organises and leads its defence as MOSES prays.
Amalek is defeated, and God promises that they will be annihilated as a nation.
MOSES builds an altar of worship to God in celebration and calls it 'The LORD is My Banner' (Ex.17:8-16).
father-in-law (JETHRO priest of Midian) comes to meet them at Rephidim and brings MOSES' wife ZIPPORAH and his two sons back to him, and Midianite JETHRO leads the nation of Israel in worship (Ex.18:1-12).
First Day: The nation Israel camps before Mount Sinai after 2½ months journey (Ex.19:1) and MOSES climbs the Mount to meet with God, who then instructs MOSES to tell the nation –
"Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, you shall be My treasured possession among all peoples,
for all the earth is Mine; and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests
[to all nations] and a holy nation."
Exodus 19:5-6.
tells these words of God to the Elders of Israel and they, on behalf of the nation, commit Israel to fully obey.
ascends the mountain again and is instructed by God to segregate the mountain, have the people wash their clothes and sexually withdraw from their wives, stand ready on the third day and only approach the mountain when they hear the trumpet sound.
(day-after-tomorrow in Hebrew inclusive counting)
God descends in a cloud upon Mount Sinai and audibly speaks the Ten-Commandments-summary of His Covenant with them directly to the people (Ex.19:10-20:17).
The people retreat in fear from before the mountain and ask MOSES to rather hear God's words on their behalf. (Ex.20:18-19).
On the mountain therefore, God gives to MOSES the rules of the Book of the Covenant of Sinai for regulating the behaviour of the people of Israel.
writes these rules down (Ex.21, 22, 23), sets up an altar to God and twelve pillars at the foot of the mountain to represent israel's twelve tribes (Ex.24:4), instructs young men of Israel to offer a sacrifice of oxen on the altar to God, and then MOSES takes the blood of the oxen and throws half of it against the altar.
This is the first written part of the
Pentateuch/Torah/Holy Scripture.
MOSES reads
this Book of the Covenant to the people, who agree to obey all its rules, and so he throws the blood of the sacrifice upon the people of Israel to seal their commitment to this Covenant of God (Ex.24:5-8).
MOSES, AARON, his two older sons NADAB and ABIHU, and seventy of the Elders of Israel ascend Mount Sinai half way and see the Lord God and eat and drink before Him in a fellowship meal.
with JOSHUA his assistant, leave the Elders under AARON and HUR, and ascend to the top of the mountain to receive the two God-engraved stone tablets of the Ten Commandments as the Testimony of the Covenant. The Cloud, in which the presence of God appears as an all-consuming fire visible from the camp of Israel, covers the mountain top for six days as MOSES awaits God's invitation to enter (Ex.24:12-17).
the seventh day God calls MOSES alone into the Cloud and he is with God for forty days (Ex.24:18), in which he is given detailed instruction concerning the Tent of the Testimony and its sacred furniture, to be made from the voluntary donations of the people, according to the vision of a model MOSES is shown (Ex.25:40), and AARON and his four sons are to serve as its priests. A census of military strength is to be taken of all males 20-years and older in which each must pay a half shekel to the Sanctuary in support of its service. BEZALEL of the tribe of Judah, with OHOLIAB of the tribe of Dan as his assistant, are appointed by God to oversee the construction of the Sanctuary, its furnishings and materials. (Ex.25:1-31:11).
The seventh day for rest (sabbath) from labour is set on pain of death as the public sign of Israel's obedience to God's Covenant with their nation at Sinai (Ex.31:13-17).
"Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day shall be put to death."
Financial Standard Established
"Every valuation shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary: twenty gerahs shall make a shekel." (Lev.27:25).
Israel Year 2
First Month
Tent of the 'Testimony' (the 'testimony' is the tablets of the 10 Commandments) of God's Covenant with Israel is completed at Sinai on 1st Abib/Nisan, (Exodus 40:1).
AARON (MOSES' older brother), is appointed it's first high priest of a future hereditary priesthood.
Israel is organized as a four-battalion military force centred around the Tent of Testimony, the Sanctuary of God.
The Sanctuary also keeps the national financial standard as well as the master copy of God's written Word as it is given.

Israel's 335 Days at Mount Sinai of Horeb
Year I
 month 3
 day 15
  The nation Israel arrives at Mount Sinai.  
Year I
 month 3
 day 17
  God Himself (the Lord Jesus) descends upon the Mount before all Israel.
Year II
 month 1
 day   1
The Sanctuary of God is erected. Exodus 40:17.
Year II
 month 1
 day 14
  The first commemoration of the Passover is held.  
Year II
 month 2
 day   1
  The first military census of Israel is taken.  
Year II
 month 2
 day 20
  The nation marches on from Mount Sinai. Deuteronomy.1:6

Israel in Camp
- N -
(14) ASHER
(13) DAN
  (5) Camp of MERARI
(4) Camp of GERSHON
Tent of Testimony 

  (9) Camp of KOHATH  
(8) GAD
- S -
Israel-in-camp is grouped clock-wise, under their flags, around the Tent of God, in four Battalions (of three tribes each), with Judah's Battalion before the Sanctuary entrance to its East.
From Mount Sinai the order of Israel's march is led by –
1.  Hobab of Midian (a Gentile) with Moses, his brother-in-law (Num.10:31),
Followed by the holy blue-covered Ark of the Covenant (Num.10:33), carried on the shoulders of the Levites.
Then successively, the Battalions break camp, at each silver-trumpet fanfare, and they move out in the following march order (Num.10:5-6,13-28)
to follow the Ark.
Four Marching Battalions with their Families and Livestock
3.1 Judah's (Issachar, Zebulun),
followed by Gershom and Merari (the two Levite Clans with the disassembled Tent of God on wagons);
3.2 Reuben's (Simeon, Gad),
followed by Kohath (the Levite Clan carrying the covered sacred furniture);
3.3 Ephraim's (Manasseh, Benjamin);
3.4 Dan's (Asher, Naphtali) as the rear-guard.
See See: Military Commanders

The Signal    
• to setup-camp –
Descent of the Cloud over the Ark.
And Moses cries out –
"Return, Lord, to the thousands of families of Israel" (Num.10:36)
• to break-camp –
Lifting of the Cloud from over the Ark.
And Moses cries out –
"Arise, Lord: scatter Your enemies, and put to flight those who hate You!" (Num.9:15-23;10:35).
Moses is commanded by God to keep a Journal of his nation's unique migration. See – Journal of the Journey

MOSES sends twelve spies from Kadesh-barnea (Num.13) to reconnoitre the Promised Land as far north as Lebo-hamath (entrance of Hamath) inland of the port city of Byblos (Num.34:8).
This would include all
present day Lebanon.
  Military Dispositions
Changes in the military strength of each tribe between First and Second Census
Relative strength of Israel's Battalions before invading the Land

Israel Year 39
Miriam's death
Year Forty
First month: MIRIAM dies (prophetess and older sister of Moses).
Aaron's death Fifth month: AARON dies on Mount Hor aged 123.
• ELEAZAR, (AARON's third son), becomes high priest.
The king of Arad attacks Israel. (Num.21).
Balaam the prophet of North Syria prophesies for Midian and Moab about Israel. (Num.22-24).
"The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers – it is to Him you shall listen –"
"I see people who live apart and do not consider themselves one of the nations. Who can count the dust of Jacob or number the fourth part of Israel?"
is seduced to worship Baal by the women of Midian, which brings a plague from the Lord among the people. God instructs that all those initiated into Baal-worship are to be executed (Num.25:1-9).
promises the priesthood to the descendants of PHINEHAS (son of ELEAZAR) for his zeal in stopping the plague (Num. 25:11-13).
Moses is instructed to exterminate Midian, but the girl-children and virgins are added to Israel. Balaam the prophet who took the bribe is killed (Num.31).
distributes conquered transjordan land to the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, although it is outside the land promised to Abraham.
Eleventh month,
Day 1:
MOSES' great final address to Israel and his prophecy, ending with –
"Rejoice with Him, O heavens; bow down to Him, all gods,
for He avenges the blood of His children and takes vengeance on His adversaries.
He repays those who hate Him and cleanses His people's land."
(Deut. 32:43).
prays the blessing of God upon the people, tribe by tribe – the Levites are to be Israel's guide as keepers of the Urim and Thummim to ascertain God's direction, and as teachers of the Law of the Lord for Israel –
"And of Levi [Moses] said, "Give to Levi Your Thummim, and Your Urim to Your godly one, whom You tested at Massah, with whom You quarreled at the waters of Meribah; who said of his father and mother, 'I regard them not'; he disowned his brothers and ignored his children. For they observed Your word and kept Your covenant [see Luke 14:26]. They shall teach Jacob your rules and Israel your law; they shall put incense before you and whole burnt offerings on your altar. Bless, O LORD, his substance, and accept the work of his hands; crush the loins of his adversaries, of those who hate him, that they rise not again."
Deuteronomy 33:8-11.
Moses' death
MOSES dies alone on Mount Pisgah, for Israel is not to be trusted with the knowledge of his tomb. The archangel Michael disposes of his body (Jude 1:9).

God had warned Israel at Sinai of the moral reasons why the existing inhabitants of Palestine are to be completely destroyed
and their land now occupied by Israel in terms of God's conditional promise to Abraham.
  Namely, the vile practices of infant sacrifice, homosexuality, and bestiality.  
infant sacrifice "You shall not give any of your children to offer them to molech, and so profane the name of your God: I am the LORD.
In the Hebrew text 'mlk' may mean 'melech' (king) but more likely 'molk'/'mulk' (sacrifice) meaning human-sacrifice.
homosexual practice You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination.
bestiality And you shall not lie with any animal and so make yourself unclean with it,
neither shall any woman give herself to an animal to lie with it: it is perversion.
  Do not make yourselves unclean by any of these things, for by all these the nations I am driving out before you have become unclean,
and the land became unclean, so that I punished its iniquity, and the land vomited out its inhabitants.
But you shall keep my statutes and my rules and do none of these abominations, either the native or the stranger who sojourns among you
(for the people of the land, who were before you, did all of these abominations, so that the land became unclean),
lest the land vomit you out when you make it unclean, as it vomited out the nation that was before you.
Leviticus 18:21-28.
see also
Leviticus 20.
Israel Year 40
This year is the first of Israel's Sabbatical Years. (Lev.25:2).
First Month  
Day 10 – 
JOSHUA leads Israel into Palestine through the flooding Jordan river.
All males (other than JOSHUA and CALEB) are circumcised with flint knives and the camp is therefore called Gilgal (In Hebrew, phonetically the same as 'to roll' away – i.e. the reproach).
(See more detail on the circumcision in Egyptian Reflections).
Day 14 –  Passover is commemorated at Gilgal.
Day 15 –  Israel eats the produce of the Land for the first time.
Day 16 –  God's provision of Manna stops.

"Speak to the people of Israel
and say to them,
When you come into the land that I give you, the land shall keep a Sabbath to the LORD."

Israel destroys
The Jericho Genocide
every living thing in Jericho as a sacrifice to God (Joshua 6:21);
only prostitute RAHAB and her family who take refuge in her brothel are saved.
She later marries Salmon of Judah and becomes an ancestress of Jesus the Christ.
From Shame to Glory
Israel is defeated by Ai, discovers ACHAN's sin, deals with it, and then destroys Ai. (Jos.7).
defeats the army of ADONI-ZEDEK of Jerusalem and his allied Amorite kings (miraculous lengthening of the day against the Alliance forces, Jos.10).
Israel Year 47 c.1402
JOSHUA's conquest of the central spine of Palestine is completed (Jos.14:7,10).
The Tabernacle is at Shiloh, now Israel's unofficial capital.
Second Sabbatical Year for the Land.
In China – A decimal number system with no zero starts to be used.
In Egypt – THUTMOSE IV MENKHEPERURA becomes pharaoh. He validates his right to the throne on his so-called Dream Stele at Giza claiming that he was offered the throne of Egypt in return for removing the sand from the Great Sphinx. This would indicate that he was not the natural heir to the throne (the first-born son), who would have died in the Tenth Plague of Israel's Exodus from Egypt in which all the first-born of Egypt had been killed.

The 'Dream Stele'
at Giza
First Half 14th century BC
In Egypt – The Tell el-Amarna letters (from lower/northern Egypt), written in Akkadian, contain words and phrases found in the Bible.
Note the relevance of this language to the probable cause of Noah's Flood
occupancy of Canaan/Palestine is subject to certain conditions, among others:
Sabbaths & Festivals
for life in Canaan/Palestine
". . . to do in the land" (Deuteronomy 4:14).
Seventh-day mandatory rest for all, including foreigners and draught animals.
New moon celebration to initiate each new month.
Festivals and Sabbaths:
  Three annual festivals are to be observed –
  1. Unleavened Bread (Passover, First-fruits) – 15th and 22nd day of Nisan/Abib (March-April).
  2. Harvest Festival (Pentecost, Weeks/Sevens). (Exodus 12) – 'Shavuot'
  3. Final Harvest (Trumpets, Atonement, Booths/Tabernacles) – 15th and 22nd day of Tishri (September-October).
The modern distinction between the religious year and civil year is a medieval rabbinic rationalisation to excuse acceptance of the Babylonian calendar. It should have no place in Jewish practice.
Sabbath and Festival:
Cancellation of all debt at the Festival of Booths/Tabernacles (Deuteronomy 31; Leviticus 25).
The Laws of the Covenant are to be publicly read to the assembled people (Deuteronomy 31:10-13).
See: Pharisee Hillel,
regarding debt cancellation.
"Assemble the people, men, women, and little ones, and the sojourner within your towns, that they may hear and learn to fear the LORD your God, and be careful to do all the words of this law, and that their children, who have not known it, may hear and learn to fear the LORD your God,
as long as you live in the land that you are going over the Jordan to possess."
Festival and Sabbath:
Freeing of slaves and return of lands and dwellings to previous owners
(except for urban and Levitical lands) on Atonement Day (Leviticus 25).
"These are the appointed feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim as times of holy convocation, for presenting to the LORD food offerings,
burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings, each on its proper day..."
(Lev.23:37 ESV).

  Kosher (The Laws of Kashrut)
this Sinai Covenant, dietary regulation simply refined and systematized the dietary practice that had been followed from the earliest times (from before Noah), just as with the beginning of the weekly-Sabbath tradition. This was reflected in the numerical distinction between 'clean' and 'unclean' animals in Noah's ark (Genesis 7:2).
Rabbinic traditions have so added to God's instruction as to develop a complex system under the rationale of creating "a fence around the Torah" or more truthfully 'around the Jewish people'. Although Jesus showed no tolerance for Rabbinic misapplication and additions to God's commands, in the centuries after Jesus these traditions were consolidated into the Jewish Talmud and made normative for Jewish life. This has seriously obscured the valuable health protection of Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14.
Judaism has further dishonoured God's written Word by elevating these traditions as an Oral Law/Torah which claims equal or higher status to God's Word.
Kosher separation of meat and dairy derives in error from the prohibition on boiling a kid in its mother's milk to produce rain, as attested in the Ugaritic discoveries of Canaanite practice.
The God-given fact that Abraham served milk and meat in the same meal to the Lord Jesus and His two angels should answer the issue (Gen.18:8).
Kosher tradition of the complete separation of meat and dairy products seeks its authenticity from God's prohibition on boiling a kid in its mother's milk (Exodus 23:19; 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21). However, the context of this command is not dietary regulation, but religious observance of Israel's Sabbaths and Holy Festivals inside the promised land. The Ugaritic Poems, found on clay tablets at Ras Shamra in Lebanon, show that this reference was to Canaanite magical practice to produce rain and not in any way a dietary regulation. (W Chomsky 1969, p.59).
Modern Jewish religious tradition has often given a philosophic explanation of the Bible's health regulations as expressions of the principle of 'separation', and cite God's prohibition of mixing fibres in a garment and seeds in a field as supporting evidence. However, separation (from all non-Jews) is more the result than the cause of the dietary regulations, as a result of exaggeration and twisting of these regulations in the hands of Israel's ancient rabbis who invented explanations when they did not know.
The rabbis have ignored the historical and literary context of these commands. These commands are simply God's preparation of Israel to occupy Canaan (Palestine), a land already occupied by a well established culture with entrenched magical practices based on their fertility religion.
These practices included, apart from infant sacrifice, belief in the power of mystical/magical union to increase prosperity. The idea was that, as sexual union of male and female in marriage produced offspring, so also the bringing together of two different kinds of seed in sowing (wheat and barley), or two different kinds of fibre in weaving (linen and wool), would result in greater wealth.
God's prohibition of this 'mixing' is therefore simply a ban on Canaanite religious practices and is not support for racial/social segregation ('apartheid').
Bible's dietary regulations are just that – dietary regulations for the physical health of the people, because God cares!

National Government
"The LORD their God is with them, and the shout of a king is among them." Numbers 23:21.
These inspired words of Balaam to the princes of Moab during Israel's migration are to be understood in their Semitic parallelism that the 'LORD their God' is their king in the midst of them (as represented in their Covenant Ark). It is not a prophecy to justify a human monarchy being established.
sets up a central Judicial System for the Nation in its Priesthood –
"If any case arises requiring decision between one kind of homicide and another, one kind of legal right and another, or one kind of assault and another, any case within your towns that is too difficult for you, then you shall arise and go up to the place that the LORD your God will choose. And you shall come to the Levitical priests and to the judge who is in office in those days, and you shall consult them,
and they shall declare to you the decision.
Then you shall do according to what they declare to you from that place that the LORD will choose. And you shall be careful to do according to all that they direct you. According to the instructions that they give you, and according to the decision which they pronounce to you, you shall do. You shall not turn aside from the verdict that they declare to you, either to the right hand or to the left. The man who acts presumptuously by not obeying the priest who stands to minister there before the LORD your God, or the judge, that man shall die.
So you shall purge the evil from Israel."
Deuteronomy 17:8-12.
reluctantly permits a central Executive Government –
"When you come to the land that the LORD your God is giving you, and you possess it and dwell in it and then say, 'I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are around me,' you may indeed set a king over you whom the LORD your God will choose.
One from among your brothers you shall set as king over you.
You may not put a foreigner over you, who is not your brother. Only he must not acquire many horses for himself or cause the people to return to Egypt in order to acquire many horses, since the LORD has said to you, 'You shall never return that way again.' And he shall not acquire many wives for himself, lest his heart turn away, nor shall he acquire for himself excessive silver and gold.
"And when he sits on the throne of his kingdom, he shall write for himself in a book a copy of this Law, approved by the Levitical priests.
And it shall be with him, and he shall read in it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the LORD his God by keeping all the words of this law and these statutes, and doing them, that his heart may not be lifted up above his brothers, and that he may not turn aside from the commandment, either to the right hand or to the left, so that he may continue long in his kingdom, he and his children, in Israel."
Deuteronomy 17:14-20.
God's instruction, which prevented tribal areas from eventually merging into one through marriage inheritance, also helps prevent the development of a central nationalist identity/ideology. The nation's identity was therefore be derived directly from its relationship to God through the exclusivity of His Sinai Covenant with them and not from either their racial origins or their geographic location as is so common today.

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