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King Manasseh  to  Israel's Exile

– data subject to continuing refinement –
7th cent. MIDAS son of GORDIUS reigns in the kingdom of Phrygia.
Fifteenth Jubilee Year c.674
See Leviticus 25.
Ashurbanipal of Assyria
  Ashurbanipal of Assyria
Assyria invades Egypt using iron technology. (ASHURBANIPAL of Assyria: 668-627 BC).
NAHUM prophesies the destruction of Nineveh using the city of No-Amon (Thebes in Egypt) as an example. (It was sacked by ASHURBANIPAL of Assyria in 663).
Judaea/Judah – King MANASSEH erects a carved idol in the Temple sanctuary (2 Chron.33:7), and is later taken hostage to Babylon by the Assyrians –
"So the LORD brought against him the army commanders of the king of Assyria,
 who took Manasseh prisoner, put a hook in his nose, bound him with bronze shackles and took him to Babylon"
2 Chronicles 33:11.
prison MANASSEH repents toward God and is subsequently released back to Jerusalem as its king.
He cleanses and restores the Jerusalem Temple and its service.
MANASSEH dies. AMON, his son, is crowned king.
In Judaea/Judah – Ungodly King AMON is murdered.
His son, JOSIAH, becomes king at the age of 8.
Israel Year 817 632
In Judaea/Judah – King JOSIAH, aged 16, begins to seek the Lord.
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
In Judaea/Judah – The prophet ZEPHANIAH prophesies.
In Azerbaijan, in northern Persia – The prohet/reformer Zoroaster/Zarathustra begins in promoting monotheism.
In Judaea/Judah – JOSIAH, aged 20, begins to purge Jerusalem and its countryside of paganism.
In Nineveh, Assyria – The last great Assyrian emperor ASHURBANIPAL writes, during his reign which ended in this year, of his personal pride in being able to read –
"the cunning tablet of Sumer, and the dark Akkadian language which is difficult rightly to use;
I took my pleasure in reading stones inscribed before the Flood". (Kriwaczek 2010:11)
In Judaea/Judah – JEREMIAH is called to the prophetic ministry, age 20 at most (cf. Jeremiah 25:3).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year for the land.
A tribal group, the Chaldeans (who later become the Babylonians) win their independence from the Assyrians.
JEREMIAH is told by God that the kingdom of Judah is now morally more corrupt that the kingdom of Israel which God had judged and sent into exile for their unfaithfulness to His Covenant –
 "And the LORD said to me, 'Faithless Israel has shown herself more righteous than treacherous Judah'." 
Jeremiah 3:11.
Sixteenth Jubilee Year 623
Israel's Jubilee Year (50-year cycle in Hebrew inclusive-counting, 49-year cycle in modern counting, see Leviticus 23:15-16), and the eighteenth year of king JOSIAH'S reign.
Israel Year 827 622
In Judaea/Judah – HILKIAH, the High Priest, discovers the Covenant scroll in the Temple, initiating a spiritual renewal under King JOSIAH.
The Ark of the Covenant is returned to the Temple (2 Chron.35:3), and the greatest Passover since the prophet SAMUEL is celebrated in Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 34:14-33; 35:18).
In Judaea/Judah – Birth of prince JEHOIACHIN (CONIAH).
Israel Year 837 612
Nineveh, capital of Assyria, falls as prophesied by NAHUM.
King JOSIAH of Judah is killed by Pharaoh NECHO II (Nekau) of Egypt at Meggido, after being warned by him –
"What have we to do with each other, king of Judah?
I am not coming against you this day, but against the house with which I am at war.
And God has commanded me to hurry. Cease opposing God, who is with me, lest He destroy you."
"He (Josiah) did not listen to the words of Neco from the mouth of God, but came to fight in the plain of Megiddo."
II Chronicles 35:22
2 Chronicles 35:21.
Pharaoh Necho/Neco sends a Phoenician expedition to explore, who then circumnavigate Africa from East to West (clockwise) in three years (Herodotus 4:42).
Judaea/Judah – JOSIAH's son JEHOAHAZ (SHALLUM) is crowned king, but after three months he is deported to Egypt by Pharaoh NECHO and dies there (Jeremiah 22:11-17).
September 10: In Judaea/Judah – Pharaoh makes his elder brother ELIAKIM king, changes his name to JEHOIAKIM, and imposes tribute to Egypt on Judah.
rebukes the nation for its infant sacrifice crimes  –
"They have built the high places of Topheth in the valley of Hinnom to burn their sons and daughters in the fire
something I did not command, nor did it enter My mind.
So beware, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when people will no longer call it Topheth or the Valley of Ben Hinnom,
but the Valley of Slaughter, for they will bury the dead in Topheth until there is no more room."
See: God's Conditions!

Jeremiah 7:31-32
Nebuchadnezzar II
engraving of Nebuchadnezzar inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue.

In Judaea/Judah – HABAKKUK begins to prophesy about a coming invasion by the Chaldeans.
JEHOIAKIM abducts the prophet URIAH son of SHEMAIAH from Egypt and murders him. (Jeremiah 26:21-23).
In Egypt – Crown prince NEBUCHADNEZZAR (נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, c.634–562 BC) of Babylon (eldest son of Nabopolassar who had freed Babylon from subservience to Assyria and laid Nineveh in ruins) now soundly defeats pharaoh NECHO II of Egypt.
In Judah/Judaea – King JEHOIAKIM becomes a vassal of Babylon, and young DANIEL is deported there with many others.

Ezekiel 17 later
gives God's view of this.
August 15: NEBUCHADNEZZAR's father dies.
ܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ ‎
(Nebuchadnezzar in Aramaic)
  September 7: NEBUCHADNEZZAR II is crowned king (c.605 BC–562 BC),
In Jerusalem – JEREMIAH prophesies a 70 year Exile of Judah from its Land –
"'Because you have not obeyed My words, behold,
I will send for all the tribes of the north, declares the LORD, and for Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, My servant,
and I will bring them against this land and its inhabitants, and against all these surrounding nations.
I will devote them to destruction, and make them a horror, a hissing, and an everlasting desolation. ...
This whole country will become a desolate wasteland, and these nations will serve the king of Babylon for seventy years.
But when seventy years are fulfilled, I will punish the king of Babylon and his nation, the land of the Babylonians, for their guilt,'
declares the Lord, 'and will make it desolate for ever."
25:9, 11-12.

February 2 – March 2: NEBUCHADNEZZAR returns to complete the conquest of the Hittites and exact heavy tribute.
December: In Judaea/Judah – King JEHOIAKIM burns the scroll of JEREMIAH's prophecies while JEREMIAH is under house arrest (Jer.36:22).
In Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year.
In Judaea/Judah – JEHOIAKIM breaks his vassal treaty with NEBUCHADNEZZAR (2 Kings 24:1).
Babylonian armies are temporarily defeated by the Egyptians on Egypt's border after a fierce battle.
Pharaoh NECHO II (Nekau/Neco) of Egypt commissions a Phoenician expedition to circumnavigate Africa clockwise (reported by Herodotus, who did not believe it), taking three years to complete the journey.
II Chronicles 35:22
In Judaea/Judah – King NEBUCHADNEZZAR takes 3,023 Jewish captives in a preliminary campaign (Jeremiah 52:8). 
December 9: In Judea/Judah – JEHOIAKIM son of JOSIAH dies.
His corpse is discarded in disgrace (as JEREMIAH had previously prophesied of him) –
 "With the burial of a donkey he shall be buried, dragged and dumped beyond the gates of Jerusalem." 
22:18-19; 36:30.
    In Judaea/Judah – JEHOIAKIM's son JEHOIACHIN aged 18 is now crowned in his place.  
Israel Year 852 597
In Judaea/Judah – HOSHAIAH, the commander of a small military outpost close to Jerusalem, writes to YAUSH/JOASH, the military governor of Lachish with military and political information. He quotes the king of Judaea/Judah as saying that the words of the prophet (JEREMIAH) demoralize the people as they face the Babylonian threat –
 "[his words] loosen the hands, weaken the hands of the country and the city" (compare Jer.38:4). 
He appeals to YAUSH/JOASH to intercede on behalf of this prophet before the king and his officers.
The Lachish Letters.
written in carbon ink, in Ancient Hebrew, on 21 clay-ostraca/pottery-fragments, discovered in 1935.
March 16 (2 Adar): In Judea/Judah – JEHOIACHIN, who reigned for only three months, is taken captive with his family and all the leaders of Judah by King NEBUCHADNEZZAR of Babylon.
In 2005: a seal impression is discovered south of Temple Mount by archaeologist Eilat Mazar bearing the name 'Yehochal son of Shelemiah son of Shani' mentioned as a senior official in the court of Zedekiah, referred to in Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1.
Seventy-year Exile
April 22: JEHOIACHIN and family are deported to Babylon with 10,000 others, including the prophet EZEKIEL and KISH, the great grandfather of MORDECAI (Esther 2:5-6). All gold (including all gold furniture such as the Ark of the covenant) is stripped and the gold is shipped to Babylon (2 Kings 24:13).
From this date then the Seventy-year Exile is to be calculated.
Judaea/Judah – NEBUCHADNEZZAR appoints MATTANIAH (JEHOIACHIN's uncle) as king, and changes his name to ZEDEKIAH (Jer.27,28).
  In Canaan/Palestine – A Jewish Sabbatical Year (1 Abib/Nisan = 13th April).
ZARATHUSTRA (ZOROASTER) of Bactria (Northern Afghanistan) begins his preaching ministry among the Achaemenid/Persian tribes.
JEREMIAH's letter
to the exiles taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar's earlier conquest, because they were being misled by false prophets to expect an early return –
"Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, to all the exiles whom I have sent into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon:
Build houses and live in them; plant gardens and eat their produce. Take wives and have sons and daughters; take wives for your sons, and give your daughters in marriage, that they may bear sons and daughters; multiply there, and do not decrease.
But seek the welfare of the city
[Babylon] where I have sent you into exile,
and pray to the LORD on its behalf, for in its welfare you will find your welfare.
For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel:
Do not let your prophets and your diviners who are among you deceive you,
and do not listen to the dreams that they dream,
for it is a lie that they are prophesying to you in My name;
I did not send them, declares the LORD.
"For thus says the LORD: When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will visit you,
and I will fulfill to you My promise and bring you back to this place.
For I know the plans I have for you, declares the LORD, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope.
Then you will call upon Me and come and pray to Me, and I will hear you.
You will seek Me and find Me, when you seek Me with all your heart.
I will be found by you, declares the LORD, and I will restore your fortunes
and gather you from all the nations and all the places where I have driven you, declares the LORD,
and I will bring you back to the place
[Jerusalem] from which I sent you into exile.
"Because you have said, 'The LORD has raised up prophets for us in Babylon,' thus says the LORD
concerning the king who sits on the throne of David, and concerning all the people who dwell in this city
your kinsmen who did not go out with you into exile:
'Thus says the LORD of hosts, behold, I am sending on them sword, famine, and pestilence, and I will make them like vile figs that are so rotten they cannot be eaten. I will pursue them with sword, famine, and pestilence, and will make them a horror to all the kingdoms of the earth, to be a curse, a terror, a hissing, and a reproach among all the nations where I have driven them,
because they did not pay attention to My words, declares the LORD,
that I persistently sent to you by My servants the prophets, but you would not listen,
declares the LORD.'
Hear the word of the LORD, all you exiles whom I sent away from Jerusalem to Babylon:
Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel,
concerning Ahab the son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah,
who are prophesying a lie to you in My name:
Behold, I will deliver them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon,
and he shall strike them down before your eyes.
Because of them this curse shall be used by all the exiles from Judah in Babylon:
"The LORD make you like Zedekiah and Ahab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire,"
because they have done an outrageous thing in Israel, they have committed adultery with their neighbors' wives,
and they have spoken in My name lying words that I did not command them.
I am the one who knows, and I am witness, declares the LORD.'"
Jeremiah 29:4-23.
July 31: In Babylonia – EZEKIEL sees the vision of the Cherubim and Chariot (Merkavah) of God (Ezekiel .1:1-3). His prophetic ministry now begins.
See: Infant Sacrifice
September 17: EZEKIEL sees the vision of abominations in the Jerusalem Temple and the departure of God's presence from it (Ez.8-11), because of the cruel human-sacrifice perpetrated by Judah to obtain prosperity through their idols –
"And you took your sons and your daughters, whom you had borne to Me,
these you sacrificed to them
[the idols] to be devoured.
 Were your whorings so small a matter that
you slaughtered My children and delivered them up as an offering by fire to them?" 
Ezekiel 16:20-21.
 "When you present your gifts and offer up your children in fire, you defile yourselves with all your idols to this day." 
Ezekiel 20:31.
"Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel:
...It is I who by My great power and My outstretched arm have made the earth, with the men and animals that are on the earth,
[as its Creator therefore] I give it to whomever it seems right to Me.
 Now I have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, My servant, and I have given him also the beasts of the field to serve him."
January 15: In Judaea/Judah – NEBUCHADNEZZAR's siege of Jerusalem begins.
God says to JEREMIAH (See Ezekiel 24:1):
"Indeed this city [Jerusalem] has been to Me a provocation of My anger and My wrath from the day that they [Israel] built it, even to this day, that it should be removed from before My face, because of all the evil of the sons of Israel and the sons of Judah, which they have done to provoke Me to anger –
they, their kings, their leaders, their priests, their prophets, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem." (Jer.32:31-32).
After this exile, God explains to a subsequent generation:
"They made their hearts diamond-hard lest they should hear the Law and the words that the LORD of hosts had sent by His Spirit through the former prophets.
Therefore great anger came from the LORD of hosts. As I called, and they would not hear, so they called, and I would not hear, says the LORD of hosts, and I scattered them with a whirlwind among all the nations that they had not known. Thus the land they left was desolate, so that no one went to and fro, and the pleasant land was made desolate."

(Zechariah 7:12-14).

Map of Babylonian Empire
"Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel [to JEREMIAH]: Go and speak to Zedekiah king of Judah and say to him – 'Thus says the Lord:
   Behold, I am giving this city into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire.'" (Jer.34:2).
Hear then
Jeremiah's horrific experience of Jerusalem under siege, in this agonised cry of his heart –
"Look, O LORD, and see!
With whom have You dealt thus?
Should women eat the fruit of their womb, the children of their tender care?
Should priest and prophet be killed in the Sanctuary of the Lord?"
"The hands of compassionate women have boiled their own children;
 they became their food during the destruction of the daughter of my people" (Lamentations 4:10).
But later, Jeremiah
encourages those who believe, with God's words which promise a reuniting of the whole nation in their restoration to Jerusalem –
when God judges Babylon
 "In those days ...the sons of Israel will come, both they and the sons of Judah as well... They will ask the way to Zion...".
(Jeremiah 50:4-5).  
January 7: EZEKIEL prophesies against Pharaoh of Egypt concerning its overthrow because they failed to keep their treaty with Judah. (Ezekiel 29:1-).
April 23: EZEKIEL prophesies against the city-state of Tyre of its destruction, which had seen advantage for itself in the destruction of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 26:1-).
April 29: EZEKIEL prophesies the complete destruction of Egypt and the exile of its population (Ezekiel 30:20-).
June 21: EZEKIEL prophesies against Pharaoh of Egypt (Ezekiel 31:1-).
July 18: In Judaea/Judah – Jerusalem falls to the Babylonian army.
EZEKIEL's wife dies in their house at Tel-abib on the Chebar canal south-east of Babylon, near the city of Nippur (Ezekiel 24:18).
This year-date
of 587 assumes a Judean regnal year that began in Spring [c.March].
The alternate year-date 586 assumes that the regnal years of Judean kings began in Autumn [c.October].
15 to 18: In Judaea/Judah – NEBUCHADNEZZAR's captain of the guard, NEBUZARADAN, burns Jerusalem and the Temple (including the Ark of the Covenant, Jer.3:16) – and carries off remaining Temple treasures.
"The Lord has scorned His altar, disowned His Sanctuary; He has delivered into the hand of the enemy the walls of her palaces;
they raised a clamor in the House of the LORD as on the day of festival."
(Lamentations 2:7)
"Your sacred cities have become a desert; even Zion is a desert, Jerusalem a desolation.
Our holy and glorious Temple, where our fathers praised You, has been burned with fire, and all that we treasured lies in ruins."
As Jerusalem's priests recorded –
"...the king of the Chaldeans, who killed their young men with the sword in the house of their Sanctuary..." (2 Chronicles 36:17).

Isaiah 64:11.
As the prophet MICAH of Moresheth had previously prophesied in the reign of HEZEKIAH –
"Zion shall be plowed as a field; Jerusalem shall become a heap of ruins, and the mountain of the House a wooded height."
Jeremiah 26:18.
After this Babylonian
destruction of Jerusalem, the Jewish survivors believe (with 'Zionist' ambition) that they can begin again to take possession and rebuild their land, saying –
 'Abraham was only one man, yet he got possession of the land; but we are many; the land is surely given us to possess.'  
Ezekiel 33:24, 28.
See: Zionist Hostilities
But in direct
rebuttal the Lord God says –
 "I will make the land a desolation and a waste, and her proud might shall come to an end, 
and the mountains of Israel shall be so desolate that none will pass through."
After this, the exiled Jews gradually adopt the Babylonian calendar. That is, the Babylonian 'New Year' in Autumn, as is continued in Judaism today, instead of the Mosaic 'New Year' in Spring.
They later begin to 'justify' this by distinguishing between a religious year (as comanded by God) and a civil year (as adopted by them in Babylonia).
Although the historian/priest Josephus (1st Cent. AD/CE) still apparently used the God-decreed year.
Ezekiel still holds to the original calendar of Israel ('first month' according to the Hebrew source of the Greek Septuagint Jewish version 32:17).
"The Lord has stirred up the spirit of the kings of the Medes,
because His purpose concerning Babylon is to destroy it, for that is the vengeance of the Lord, the vengeance for His Temple."
Jeremiah 51:11.
NEBUZARADAN brings SERAIAH the High Priest and other leaders to NEBUCHADNEZZAR at Riblah for execution.
(His successor as High Priest JEHOZADAK is deported).
"The king of Babylon slaughtered the sons of [king] Zedekiah at Riblah before his eyes, and the king of Babylon slaughtered all the nobles of Judah. He put out the eyes of Zedekiah and bound him in chains to take him to Babylon." (Jeremiah 39:6-7).
NEBUCHADNEZZAR appoints GEDALIAH as governor of Palestine, with whom JEREMIAH chooses to stay at Mizpah, the new capital (Jeremiah 40:1-12).
In Judaea/Judah – Governor GEDALIAH, a supporter of JEREMIAH, is murdered by ISHMAEL a member of the Jewish royal family (2 Kings.25:22-26; Jeremiah 40-44). (His murder is still mourned today by Jews at the fast of Tishri 3).
2 Kings .25:18–21.
1 Chronicles 6:15.
OBADIAH the prophet prophesies the annihilation of Edom for their bloody plundering of the refugees fleeing from Jerusalem.
Obadiah 1:10.
In Judaea/Judah – The remaining Jews under leadership of JOHANAN, fearing a Babylonian reprisal, force the prophet JEREMIAH to flee with them to Egypt where they found Jewish military colonies, such as at Yeb (Elephantine) in southern Egypt (in spite of Ezekiel's prophecies against Egypt: Ezekiel 29).
JEREMIAH continues to prophesy in Egypt (Jeremiah 43:8; 44:30).
For writing,
plants were most valued as writing material. The papyrus reed peels like an onion, and once the green outer layer is removed, there are about twenty inner layers. These would be unrolled and laid out on a hard and smooth table, with each layer slightly overlapping the next....
"Other civilizations in different climates found other plants to flatten into writing surfaces. What was unique about Egyptian papyrus, however, was that it became a valuable commercial product that was exported throughout the known world. ..."Papyrus was mostly used by scribes, who wrote with reed styluses, the ends chewed off into stiff brushes. Students studying to become scribes would begin with writing boards that were covered with a soft plaster that was erasable, just like Sumerian clay. You could simply pat the plaster down and start again. But an even more common implement that endured for centuries was the wax tablet, a board with a hollowed­ out center that was filled with wax – most likely beeswax.
In Assyria, such tablets have been found dating back as far as 80 BCE. They were extremely popular in ancient Greece and Rome, where the wax was black and the writing done with a metal stylus that was pointed on one end for writing and blunt on the other for erasing. (quoted from Paper by Mark Kurlansky)

painter, Douris, ca 500 BCE

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle

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