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THE QUR'ÃN  القرآن‎
Before the development of Arabic grammar and lexicography, the Qur'ãn began as a collection of north Arabic oral compositions in the dialect of the Quraysh tribe. Much of the Qur'ãn's content is derived from contemporary Jewish and Syriac Christian traditions as expressed by Muhammad between the years 610 to 632 in Mecca and Medina over a period of about twenty years.

History The first canon of the text was established under caliph 'Uthman (644-656 AD) in about 650. After the battle of Yamamah in 633, in which many who had memorized the prophesyings of Muhammad were killed, the need arose to conserve the words, and the process of collecting the recorded and memorized utterances began.
a place for Muslims
ibn Thabit was apparently instrumental in collecting the surahs (chapters) of the Qur'ãn and committing them to caliph 'Umar.
After 'Umar's death the collection was apparently left in the care of 'Umar's daughter, Hafsah. However, other copies and versions of the Qur'ãn were in use in other parts of the Muslim empire and doubt sometimes arose as to the true version.
To standardize one version of the Qur'ãn, caliph 'Uthman decreed that the Quraysh dialect of the Qur'ãn was authoritative and all variations from it in the Muslim empire were therefore destroyed.
In form, the 114 surahs of the Qur'ãn are arranged with the more recent and longer first, and the earlier and shorter last. Thus the later surah's reflect the earlier period of Muhammad's career and vice versa.

Jam' Al-Qur'an
The belief that the Qur'ãn carries the direct revelation of God has helped develop the custom of limiting the liturgical use of the Qur'ãn to Arabic. However, for the sake of spreading its influence Muslim's have accepted its translation into most significant languages. To preserve the priority of Arabic as the language of Islam, translations have generally been treated as paraphrases.
A tendency has appeared in recent years of adapting translations of the Qur'ãn to a changed world-view. For instance, the word jinn, meaning spirits, evil spirits, has in recent years even been translated as 'microbes'. Yet, this lack of honesty in translation is often regarded as justified by recourse to an alleged unrecorded intention in the text.

Some Errors
Sura 2:57,61
Contradicting the record of Holy Scripture from the pen of Moses, this says that Israel's discontent over the Manna causes a return to Egypt and that "they returned with the wrath of God" again to Moses. It also says anachronistically that at this stage "They disbelieved the signs of God, and slew the Prophets unjustly".
Sura 2:249
It mistakenly ascribes Gideon's test of drinking at the river, by which he reduced his number of troops, to King Saul. (cf.Jud.7:5-8).
Sura 3:41
Changes the Bible's statement that Zecharias, the father of John the Baptist, would be speechless (dumb) until the promised child should be born (nine to ten months) to "three days".
Sura 5:119
It confusedly claims that Mary mother of Jesus was being called the third member of the Holy Trinity. This error is understandable in the light of perverse Syrian Christian practice at that time.
Sura 9:30.
Inexplicably, the Jews are accused of calling 'Uzair', Ezra, the 'son of God' just as Christians call Jesus the Son of God. There is absolutely nothing in Jewish or Biblical history that supports this, but both are cursed accordingly, for 'son of' is understood sexually and therefore blasphemous, whereas in Semitic idiom 'son of' simply changes its attached noun into an adjective, such as "sons of God" means angels ('divine beings').
Sura 11:42-43
An unnamed son of Noah is said to have refused to take refuge in the ark and chose rather to run to a mountaintop in spite of his father's pleas.
Sura 12:11-20
Instead of Joseph being sent to check on his brothers, it claims that the brothers persuaded Joseph to go with them for fun and sport having already plotted against him and put him down a well with water (dry according to Holy Scripture), but he was sold by a chance wayfarer who had come to draw water, rather than by his brothers. (cf.Genesis 37).
Sura 12:21-32
It claims that the falsity of the charge against Joseph by Potiphar's wife was exposed by an observant servant and that the wife confessed to her women friends, nevertheless Joseph still ends up in prison.
Sura 19:28.
In Arabic the names 'Mary' and 'Miriam' are the same. Hence the confusion of the Qur'ãn between Mary the mother of Jesus, and Miriam the sister of Aaron and Moses, who had lived nearly a millennium and a half earlier than Jesus.
Sura 26:55-60
It claims that in leaving Egypt the oppressed Israelites are forsaking "their gardens and fountains and splendid dwellings". The cruel compulsory labour suffered by Israel in Egypt, the motivation for the Exodus, is not mentioned at all.
Sura 61:6
"And remember when Jesus the son of Mary said, 'O children of Israel, of a truth I am God's apostle to you to confirm the law which was given before me, and to announce an apostle that shall come after me whose name shall be Ahmad (Muhammad).'"
the old Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible, the Qur'ãn's Arabic script did not orginially have the dots that differentiate word-meanings in later Arabic, and the Arabic of Mohammad's time often used Syriac words the meaning of which has been confused in later Arabic. This has led to interpretations of the Qur'ãn that are not necessarily true to its orginal message.
Sana'a Manuscripts
example of this is the text that speaks of the reward of the righteous (Surahs 37:48, 52:20, 55:72, 56:22 and 78:33) being maidens/virgins which is probably more correctly translated as refreshing bunches of grapes, such as was portrayed in ancient murals of the Syrian Christian church (representing refreshing ministered by angels) with which Mohammad had had contact.
even though the Lord Jesus Christ (blessed be His name!) taught very clearly that in the resurrection there is neither marrying nor giving in marriage but that the righteous are as the angels of God, some Islamic clerics have perpetuated a crude and carnal interpretation of the reward of God, For instance –
"Each time we sleep with a Houri we find her virgin. Besides, the penis of the Elected never softens. The erection is eternal; the sensation that you feel each time you make love is utterly delicious and out of this world and were you to experience it in this world you would faint. Each chosen one [i.e. Muslim] will marry seventy [sic] houris, besides the women he married on earth, and all will have appetizing vaginas." (Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an, p. 351)
See: Three Comparative Translations of the Qur'ãn.
  It is good for all Christians and Jews to remember that the Qur'ãn addresses the Jews, the "People of the Book" (Ahl al-Kitab), with the words –
  "We believe in what has been sent down to us and in that which was sent down to you;
our God and your God is One; and we are submitted to Him". (Sura 29:46).
  It is also to be remembered that Islam acknowledges Jesus as a man sent from God, whereas Judaism says that Yahweh/Jehovah did not send Jesus at all.
So, for the rational observer, Islam is closer to Christianity than is Judaism.
    Therefore the Qur'ãn says concerning Christians –
"You will find those who are nearest in love to the believers to be those who say, 'We are Christians'
because among them are men devoted to learning and self-denial, and they are not arrogant." (Sura 5:82).
But sadly:
The Qur'ãn published by Saudi Arabia contains additions in brackets which alter the meaning of the text to fit Wahabi ideology, helping to radicalize and spread a perversion of Islam.
To be continued...

Islâm & God

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