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1542    to    1820

– subject to continuing refinement –
 
 
 
1543
In Germany – MARTIN LUTHER writes his pamphlet "The Jews and their lies" (Von den Juden und Ihren Lügen) and "On the Holy Name and the Lineage of Christ" (Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi) stating that the Jews are –
"base, whoring people, that is, no people of God, and their boast of lineage, circumcision, and law must be accounted as filth."
The synagogue is a –
"defiled bride, yes, an incorrigible whore and an evil slut..."
and Jews are full of the "devil's feces... which they wallow in like swine."
Luther's anti-Semitism
Judensau
Judensau on the Wittenberg Parish Church, cited by Luther, describing the Jews as a sow wallowing in excrement
   
LUTHER further advocates –
•  setting synagogues on fire,
•  destroying Jewish prayerbooks,
•  forbidding rabbis from preaching,
•  seizing Jews' property and money, smashing up their homes, and ensuring that these "poisonous envenomed worms" be forced into labor or expelled "for all time."
He also seems to sanction their murder, by writing "We are at fault in not slaying them."
(Three years later Luther dies. Hallelujah!).
JOSEL
OF ROSHEIM refutes Luther's assertions in a voluminous petition to the magistrate of Strasbourg, and the latter thereupon wisely inhibits a new edition of Luther's book.
  1544
In Germany – JOSEL OF ROSHEIM (1478-1554) obtains confirmation from Emperor CHARLES V that Jews are granted permission to charge higher interest rates from borrowers because they pay higher taxes and are not allowed to cultivate land or exercise trade. He pays the Emperor 4,400 guilders [3,000 florins] toward the expenses of the French war (allied with the Turks) in coin and gifts to obtain a certificate of protection concerning accusation of ritual murder. This begins a consolidation and strengthening of the Jewish community in Germany. (See 1552).
  1545
December 13: Pope PAUL III opens the Catholic 'Council of Trent' to formulate Catholicism's response to the Protestant Reformation.
  1546
In Geneva – JOHN CALVIN declares, concerning Erasmian polymath MICHAEL SERVETUS, in a letter to a friend that he intends to have him killed (because he does not believe in the Trinity) –
"...if my authority is of any avail, I will not suffer him to get out alive."
CALVIN supplies information via his friend (GUILLAIME DE TRIE) to the Catholic Inquisition concerning SERVETUS, including letters written to CALVIN by him, to establish his guilt and therefore his burning.
SERVETUS however flees from the Inquisition to Geneva, and so CALVIN eventually has his way in any case, except that he would have preferred another method of execution. (see August 1553).
Calvin the Nasty
   
February 18: In Eisleben, Germany – MARTIN LUTHER the Reformer preaches of the Jews
"They are our public enemies. They do not stop blaspheming our Lord Christ, calling the Virgin Mary a whore, Christ, a bastard, and us changelings or “meal calves” (Mahlkälber). If they could kill us all, they would gladly do it. They do it often, especially those who pose as physicians – though sometimes they help – for the devil helps to finish it in the end. They can also practice medicine as in French Switzerland. They administer poison to someone from which he could die in an hour, a month, a year, ten or twenty years. They are able to practice this art"
1550-1700
 
See Graph
Much of the earth endures the so-called Little Ice Age.
Global average temperature drops between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius, ice sheets advance over farms and valleys in Greenland and the Baltic sea freezes regularly.
In England – The Thames river freezes regularly, crops fail, and famine and disease affects Europe.
The Elizabethan preacher, JOHN KING, declares in 1595 –
"Our years are turned upside down; our summers are no summers; our harvests are no harvests".
See Global Warming
  1551
In Palestine – Sultan SULEIMAN's Russian-born wife, ROXELANA, builds the Takiyya Hospice in Jerusalem which becomes the most important charitable institution in Palestine.
July: Jerusalem – The Venetians bribe Ottoman Sultan SULEIMAN to hand over the Convent of Georgian nuns (West of the Holy Sepulcher) to the Franciscan Friars, who rename it St. Saviour's convent.
1551-1553
German Lutheran forces, in an alliance of Turks and French, defeat Holy Roman Emperor CHARLES V.
  1552
Rabbi JOSEL of ROSHEIM sends a warning to the emperor Charles V at Innsbruck by a special messenger that Elector Moritz of Saxony intends to invade Tyrol, and the emperor is thus enabled at the last moment to effect his escape.
Jewish aid for peace
  1553
In Palestine – Jerusalem now has a total population of 13,384 according to the Ottoman census, of which Jews and Christians comprise only about 12% each.
Jerusalem is c.76% Arab
See: 1546  
August 13: In Geneva, Switzerland – Renowned scientist MICHAEL SERVETUS (defined pulmonary circulation as part of the cardiovascular system) who had developed a nontrinitarian Christology, attends a church service where CALVIN is preaching, is identified by him and arrested as a heretic at Calvin's request. He is accused of propagating non-trinitarianism, opposition to infant-baptism, and of accordingly favouring Jews and Turks. With CALVIN's approval SERVETUS is sentenced to death.
(On 27 October 1553 Servetus is burned at the stake outside Geneva with a copy of his book chained to his leg. Calvin would have prefer another method of execution.)
Calvin's crime
   
September 9: In Rome, Italy – The Roman Catholic Inquisition burns copies of the Jewish Talmud and other Jewish texts in the city's Campo de Fiori.
  1555
In Spain – All copies of the Jewish Scriptures in Spanish are seized and burnt, and all booksellers keeping or selling prohibited books (e.g. Jewish Scriptures) are punished with confiscation of goods or death.
May: Cardinal CARAFFA, Grand Inquisitor, becomes Pope PAUL 4th and reverses the policy of Jewish protection.
July 14: All Jews in Rome are forced onto the left bank of the Tiber and surrounded by a wall, with three gates locked at night, in accordance with the papal bull Cum nimis absurdam of Pope PAUL IV, which also requires Jewish men and women to wear distinguishing clothing. (This ghetto begins a trend which spreads across Europe).
In Derneburg, Germany – Many women are burned alive as alleged witches.
In Augsburg, Germany – The 'Peace of Augsberg' ends the wars of the three state-churches of the West (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed) with the tribalizing of the Christian religioncuis regio, eius religio – in which a people's religion is decided by their ruler, provided that the ruler is of one of the three named religions. Liberty of conscience is denied to the subject but conceded to the ruler on that condition, thus a change of ruler could mean a change of religion for the people.
  1559
In Scotland – CALVIN's teachings under JOHN KNOX lead Calvinists to take up arms against their Catholic administration.
  1563
In France – Emperor CHARLES 6th expels all Jews.
  1569
Pope PIUS 5th counteracts his predecessor's anti-Semitism, but expels the Jews from all papal states except Rome and Ancona..
  1571
In Italy – Expulsion of the Jews from Tuscany, Italy, except the ghettos in Florence and Sienna.
In Germany – The Jewish residents of Berlin are expelled.
  1572
August 24: In France – 3,000 Huguenot Protestant Christians are massacred by Catholic troops in Paris.
The massacres spread through the country until October leaving about 70,000 dead. The Catholic Pope and the king of Spain welcome the news.
Rabbinic Jewish 5335 1574
Messianic fervour now infects the Jewish world.
  1577
In the Free City of Frankfurt – Ashkenasic Jewish IZAAK ELCHANAN ROTHSCHILD (meaning 'red shield' in Old German, from the sign of a local tavern) is born, from whom are descended the famous family of financiers.
A Jubilee Year c.1582
See Leviticus 25.
  1587
In Ottoman Jerusalem – The Ramban Synagogue is officially closed, resulting from years of complaints by the adjoining al-'Umari mosque about the loud noise of Jewish prayers.
  1588
January 22: Pope SIXTUS 5th asserts his responsibility for the institution of the Spanish inquisition.
  1597
In Palestine – Sultan MEHMET III restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
King PHILIP of Spain orders the expulsion of the Jews from the Duchy of Milan.
1600

Dutch use of piracy
In Haarlem, Netherlands – JAN JANSZOON van Haarlem becomes a pirate attacking Spanish shipping with authorization from the Dutch authorities during their war of independence (1568–1648). He later decides that his piracy is more profitable to operate from the North African (Barbary) coast so he abandons his wife and child (Lysbeth Janszoon) and moves there.
When attacking a Spanish ship, he flies the Dutch flag; when attacking any other shipping, he becomes an Ottoman captain flying the red half-moon of the Turks, or the flag of any of various other Mediterranean principalities as suited him. He chooses to convert to Islam and takes the name 'Murat Reis', working as pirate also with another Dutchman Ivan Dirkie De Veenboer (Muslim name Sulayman/Slemen Reis) who is subsequently killed by a cannonball in 1619.
Captured persons were usually sold as slaves.
 
See:
Slavery in Christianity
 
See:
USA Treaty of Tripoli
June 7, 1797
Later,
because Muslim Algiers concludes peace with several European nations, it is no longer a suitable harbour from which to sell captured ships or their cargo, and so he moves to the ancient port of Salé and begins operating from it as a Barbary pirate/corsair, eventually with a fleet of pirate ships and recruits many new Dutch volunteers despite a Dutch prohibition on piracy. See: June 1631 below.
  1602
In Ukraine and Poland – Jewish oppression of the peasant population builds great resentment against them. (See 1648).
  1603
In Palestine – Sultan AHMAD I restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
In England – Bubonic plague wracks London, killing 35,000.
  1609
In London – On suspicion of being Jewish, Portuguese merchants are expelled.
  1617
In Palestine – Sultan MUSTAFA I also restores the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
  1618
Outbreak of the Thirty Years War in Europe.
  1620
July 3: The Treaty of Ulm is signed between the Holy Catholic League and the Protestant Union, giving a brief truce during the Thirty Years War.
1623-31
In Germany – The Catholic bishop of Wurtzburg, PHILIP ADOLF VON EHRENBERG, burns 900 people to death for heresy (guilty of Protestantism or witchcraft), including his own nephew, 19 priests, and a child of seven.
A really sick mind!
  1624
In Frankfurt, Germany – VINCENT FETTMILCH leads a mob of artisans and merchants who raid and plunder Jews in the Ghetto. The Emperor executes the mob's leaders and the Jews are welcomed back to the Ghetto.
'Purim Winz'
Purim of Vincent
  1625
In London – Plague kills 30,000.
A Jewish Jubilee Year c.1631
See Leviticus 25.
  1631
June 20: In West Cork, Ireland – Dutch Pirate JAN JANSZOON attacks and loots the village of Baltimore capturing more than 108 persons whom he sells into slavery.
See: 1600 above
  1634
Greek Orthodox patriarch, THEOPHANES, presents a letter to Sultan MURAD IV from Caliph 'UMAR to Patriarch SOPHRONIUS in 638 granting the Greeks control of the holy places. Control of the Nativity Church in Bethlehem and key sites in the Holy Sepulcher Church in Jerusalem is given to the Greeks. After a bribe of 26,000 piastres the Sultan annuls the grant and control is returned to the Franciscans.
  1637
Bribes return control of the holy places of Jerusalem to the Greeks.
  1642
In America – Among the theses offered by the first class of Harvard graduates is Hebrea est Linguarum Mater (Hebrew is the mother of the languages). (Hebrew is actually derived from the Canaanite language which Abraham learned after arriving in Canaan).
In Britain – London supports Parliament in the British Civil War.
  1648
The Thirty Years War in Europe ends.
In Ukraine and Poland – 100,000 Jews are reported massacred, 300 Jewish communities destroyed, and many thousands more impoverished. Attacks are carried out, among other, by Cossacks under leadership of (Hetman) Khmelnitsky (Chmielnickij). (See 1602).
  In
Jerusalem – On and around Temple Mount (Haram) there are 800 salaried imams, 50 muezzins, and many Qur'ãn reciters, assisting the thousands of Muslim pilgrims from India, Persia, Kurdistan and Asia Minor.
At Easter between five and ten thousand Christian pilgrims also crowd the city, paying entrance fees to the Holy Sepulcher. For security the city gates are locked at night.
  1652
In Indonesia – The Dutch, after displacing the Portuguese and Spanish, introduce a policy known as 'extirpatie': extirpation. All clove trees not controlled by the Netherlands United East India Company, or VOC, are uprooted and burned. Anyone caught growing, stealing or possessing clove plants without authorisation faces the death penalty. On the Banda Islands, to the south, the world's only source of nutmeg, the Dutch use Japanese mercenaries to slaughter almost the entire male population.
Spice trade control
Readmission of Jews to Britain 1656
OLIVER CROMWELL, against fierce opposition, authorizes the return of Jews to Britain for the first time since EDWARD I (see 1290).
  1660
In Britain – CHARLES II is installed as king, and with the collaboration of the Church of England the persecution of Christian non-conformists begins.
In Germany – Elector Palatine KARL LUDWIG grants concessions to Jews living in Mannheim, in return for which they are obligated to build two-story dwelling houses using Jewish and Christian workers.
State-church persecution
  1661
January 30: In BritainThe decomposed bodies of Bradshawe, Cromwell and Ireton are dug up from their graves (on the anniversary of King CHARLES I rightful execution for treason) and their corpses are hanged at Tyburn before a huge crowd which includes the ladies of CHARLES II's court.
1664-65
In Britain – The Great Plague kills about 100,000.
  1664
August 22: In England – Jews petition King Charles II , who grants them a formal written statement of toleration.
  1665
Lurianic rabbi, SHABBETAI TZEVI (SABBATAI ZVI) of Smyrna, is proclaimed Messiah by most Jewish communities of Europe and the Middle East.
Another False Messiah
  1666
Rabbi TZEVI is arrested by the Ottoman government and then converts to Islam. His closest supporters teach that he has become a Muslim to challenge God to accelerate the redemption of the Jewish people and the movement persists in various Jewish sects into the 19th century.
In Britain – The great fire of London burns for four days (possibly instigated by CHARLES II in revenge on the city for the execution of his father), destroying 13,000 homes.
  1671
In London – The city becomes a gold trading centre when Jewish MOSES MOCATTA sets up his merchant business.
In Berlin, Germany – The Great Elector grants 50 well-to-do Jewish families, driven from Vienna, a temporary right of settlement in Brandenburg (See 1812).
  1673
In BritainThe Test Act deprives Catholics and Christian non-conformists of public office.
  1679
In Britain – The Scottish Covenanters are suppressed.
A Jubilee Year c.1680
See Leviticus 25.
  1682
Pope INNOCENT XI orders the closing of the Jewish banks in Rome and throughout the papal states.
  1684
In Hungary – During the siege of Buda, the Jews are accused of aiding its Turkish defenders.
In Italy – Pogroms against the Jews.
  1685
March: In France – LOUIS XIV, the Sun King, authorizes the Slave Code (Black Code) in sixty articles regulating the life, death, purchase, religion, and treatment of slaves by their masters in all French colonies. It provides that the slaves should be baptized and educated in the Catholic faith. It prohibits masters from making their slaves work on Sundays and religious holidays. It requires that slaves be clothed and fed and taken care of when sick. It prohibits slaves from owning property and states that they had no legal capacity. It also governs their marriages, their burials, their punishments, and the conditions they have to meet in order to gain their freedom.
See: 1794, 1802
and 1817.
Voltaire writes:
“the Black Code only serves to show that the legal scholars consulted by Louis XIV  had no ideas regarding human rights.”
  1688
In Jerusalem, Palestine – Following the military victory of Austria, Poland and Venice over the Ottomans, the Franciscans are given charge of the Holy Sepulcher Church.
   
November: In Britain – In the 'Glorious Revolution', Protestant king William of the Dutch royal house of Orange, who is married to Mary, former heir-apparent of England, invades and becomes king, by the overthrow Catholic monarch King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland). (See: 1745).
  1696
In Prague – a large crucifix with the words 'Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts' in gold Hebrew letters is erected on Charles Bridge by the Jewish community in expiation for an act of blasphemy by a Jew.
  1697
In Jerusalem, Palestine – Chaplain of the English Levant Company, HENRY MAUNDRELL, describes Christian pilgrims emotional reactions to ceremonies as "madness" and "Bedlam itself" and is particularly disgusted by the murderous rage and fanaticism between competing Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic clergy at the Tomb of Christ.
In London – Limitation of the number of 'Jew Brokers' in the City to twelve.
  1703
In Jerusalem, Palestine – The people revolt against the cruel taxation of their Turkish governor, JURJI MUHAMMAD PASHA. Led by AL-HUSANI, all prisoners are freed and the governor flees.
  1705
November: Jerusalem is attacked by the displaced JURJI MUHAMMAD with 2000 Janissaries and reoccupied.
Lady Mary Montagu
Lady Mary Montagu
promotes inoculation
 1717-31
In Jerusalem, Palestine – Local Arab 'UMAR AL-NIMR, from Nablus, governs Jerusalem effectively.
  1718
In England – Lady MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU begins to propagate the Turkish practice of inoculating against smallpox with a weakened strain of the virus which she had learned in Istanbul, in spite of opposition from Christian clergy who see smallpox as God's judgment.
  1720
In Jerusalem, Palestine – The Jewish Ashkenazic community falls into such debt for the rental of their land and houses that their property is confiscated and they leave the city. About 200 of their families move to Hebron, Safed and Damascus.
Jews of Jerusalem are thus predominantly Sephardic.
Franciscans refurbish the mosaics in the Holy Sepulcher Church, but other Christian clergy at the Church (Greek, Coptic, Armenian) are virtual prisoners as the Turkish authorities keep the keys and leaving the building could result in loss of possession.
American Indians/First Nations
encounter Spanish horses
1722
In North America – The Dakota Sioux, driven from their woodlands into the Plains by the Chippewas using guns, encounter horses for the first time.
A Jubilee Year c.1729
See Leviticus 25.
  1733
In Palestine – 'UMAR AL-NIMR is again appointed as governor of Jerusalem.
  1745
In Britain – The Jacobite Rebellion begins, a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, by enthroning Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie). (See: November 1688).
Bonnie Prince
Charles Stuart
  1747
In England – Evangelistic preacher JOHN WESLEY writes his "PRIMITIVE PHYSICK, or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases", as practical medical advice for those who could not afford doctors, selling at one shilling, containing rules for healthy living and 900 recipes for the treatment of 288 different ailments. It is reprinted 23 times in his life time.
Wesley's social concern
(see Gin Plague painting
of Hogarth below left)
  1751
JACOB FRANK proclaims himself Jewish Messiah and reincarnation of SHABBETAI TZEVI. His movement practices sexually promiscuous orgiastic rites. (see 1756)
  1752
BAAL SHEM (founder of Jewish Hasidism) circulates the 'Holy Epistle' describing his ascent to Heaven. (Baal Shem believes in panentheism/'God-is-in-everything').
England
adopts the Gregorian calendar. Benjamin Franklin writes,
"It is pleasant for an old man to be able to go to bed on Sept. 2, and not have to get up until Sept. 14."
Nearly two weeks evaporated into thin air in England when it transitioned from the Julian calendar, which had left the country 11 days behind much of Europe.
See:
Calendar Change
  1753
The "Jew Bill" is passed in England.
  1756
Jewish communities ban FRANK's movement as heretical. FRANK and his followers are baptized into the Roman Catholic church but keep their own separate organization.
  1757
Under French political influence the Franciscan's custodianship of the Holy Sepulcher is confirmed and the 'Tomb of the Virgin' in Kidron Valley is added to their control.
  1764
In Poland – Right of last appeal to a Jewish tribunal (bet-din) by Jews in criminal cases is now ended.
Ukraine massacres 1768
June 21: In Uman, Ukraine – After destroying a number of Jewish cities, MAKSYM ZALIZNIAK, a Zaporizhian Cossack and leader of the Koliyivschyna Ukrainian peasant rebellion, together with IVAN GONTA, leads terrible massacres of Poles and Jews in vengeance for cruelties suffered by the peasants.
Jewish month:
Tammuz 5 (June-July)
  1772
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN ('HA-GRA') in Vilna, Lithuania, the cultural capital of eastern European Jewry, vigorously opposes Hasidism until his death in 1797, insisting on the intellectual love of God according to Talmudic and Midrashic traditions.
  1777
The Republic of Venice imposes heavier restrictions on the Jews living in the ghetto.
 
c.1778
The Gin Plague

18th century London, as per Hogarth
'Drinking and Stealing'
See Leviticus 25.
In Poland – Jewish JACOB FRANK (יעקב פרנק Ya'akov Frank) claims to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed Jewish messiah Sabbatai Zevi and also of Israel's King David.
Another Sabbatai Dönmeh
cult fraud
Jewish community before the 1782 Edict of Tolerance
During the Middle Ages, Austrian Jews had lived apart from the Orthodox communities and had not been allowed by the government to own immovable property. Although this was not the case for the more affluent Jews, those who were wealthy and were able to establish factories were recipients of preferential treatment by the emperor's mother Maria Theresa, but otherwise there were restrictions on the rest of the Jewish population. Emperor Joseph II is the first Austrian emperor to make an attempt to eliminate these attitudes and sanctions toward the majority of the Jewish population.
 1782
January 2: In Austria – The Edict of Toleration is issued by Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and extended to Jews the freedom to pursue all branches of commerce, but also imposes new requirements.
Jews are required either to create German-language primary schools, or send their children to Christian schools (Jewish schools had previously taught children to read and write Hebrew, in addition to math.)
It also permits Jews to attend state secondary schools. However, a series of laws issued soon after the Edict of Toleration abolishes the autonomy of the Jewish communities, which had previously run their own court, charity, internal taxation and school systems; requires Jews to acquire family names; makes Jews subject to military conscription; and required candidates for the rabbinate to have secular educations.
The Edict allows Jews to practice agriculture, trades, and professions, to set up large businesses, and to attend schools and universities.
  In
Switzerland – The last legal execution of a witch takes place.
  1784
January: In France – A royal decree abolishes the corporal tax (péage corporel) on Jews, which had seemed to ranked them 'alongside animals'.
In Palestine – CONSTANTIN VOLNEY of France makes the first scientific survey of the geography, climate, economy, and social life of Jerusalem. He reports –
"Each [Christian] sect is perpetually informing against the other for irregularities. Has a church been clandestinely repaired; or a procession extended beyond the usual limits; has a Pilgrim entered by a different gate from the customary? All these are the subject of accusations to the Government [Ottoman Turkish], which never fails to profit from them in fines and extortions."
  1787
In France – Civil equality is granted to Protestant Christians.
  1789
August: In France – DAVID SINTZHEIM, as delegate to the National Constituent Assembly, calls for emancipation of Jews in eastern France and protests against acts of violence against Jews in Alsace and Lorraine.
August 26: In France – The Declaration of Human Rights is adopted, but it is still another two years before Jews enjoy full civil rights, and another hundred years before Algerian Jews are granted citizenship (see October 1870).
December 23: In the French Constituent Assembly, Count STANISLAS DE CLERMONT-TONNERRE declares –
"To the Jews as a nation, nothing; to the Jews as individuals, everything ...They must not form a political corps or an Order in the state; they must be citizens individually."
  1790
January 28: In France – 4,000 Jews in the south-west obtain citizenship.
  1791
September 27: In France – All Jews are emancipated by the National Assembly, and those in Alsace become citizens.
  1793
Alsace, France – Anti-Jewish violence erupts. Jewish cemeteries are destroyed and synagogues closed down.
  1794
February 4: In France – Slavery is abolished.
  1796
In Italy – NAPOLEON BONAPARTE's army puts an end to the Age of the Ghetto and proclaims the emancipation of Italian Jewry.
  1798
Emperor NAPOLEON ends the Malta slave trade in Jews.
  1799
January: In Palestine – NAPOLEON BONAPARTE dispatches 13,000 French troops to conquer Ottoman Palestine.
In retaliation Muslim's attack St Saviours church in Jerusalem.
See:
Politics of a Seduced Bride
  In
Palestine – The French army is hit by bubonic plague, but advance to Acre where they are repelled by the British navy and the army of AHMAD JEZZAR PASHA.
  1801
March 3: In America – DAVID EMANUEL takes office as the Governor of Georgia, the first Jewish person to serve as a governor in the United States. Emanuel is appointed to serve the last eight months of the term of his predecessor who has assumed a seat in the U.S. Senate.
  1802
July 16: In France – Slavery is reinstated by a decree.
  1803
April 30: In Paris – The United States and France sign the Louisiana Purchase Treaty by which the United States purchases 828,000 square miles (2,144,000 square kilometres or 529,920,000 acres) of territory from France of its claim to Louisiana for 50 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), for a total sum of 15 million dollars (around 4 cents per acre) for the Louisiana territory (equivalent of $236 million in 2013 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre).
US President Thomas Jefferson announces the Treaty to the American people on July 4th, and it is stated that the Louisiana Purchase is a noble work and that the US can now take its place among the powers of the so-called 'first rank'.
 
Western Imperialism
of course
in disregard of the
indigenous inhabitants
American expansion westward into the 'new lands' begins immediately..!
[Based on an analysis of old French maps, the United States claims West Florida (an area along the Gulf Coast in present-day Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana). Spain disputes this until 1819, when the Adams-Onís Treaty gives the United States all of Florida in exchange for surrendering its claim to Texas.
In the north, Great Britain and the United States agree in 1818 to establish the 49th parallel as the border between them from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.]
Louisiana Purchase
Vente de la Louisiane
  1808
In Jerusalem – the Holy Sepulchre Church is gutted by fire.
May 17: In France – Emperor NAPOLEON decrees that Jewish shopkeepers must apply to the local prefect annually for a trading licence and for permission to trade in some economic fields.
Jews are not allowed to settle in Alsace or to move without special permission.
They may not use Hebrew in commercial transactions, and limits may be set on Jewish immigration.
   
December 11: NAPOLEON decrees that Jews throughout France are to be under a state-supervised system of control. Where they number more than 2,000 in an administrative region (département), 13 regions at this time, they are to establish a synagogue, each of which is led by a rabbi and a layman appointed by Jewish notables and approved by the civil authorities. Each Jewish 'consistory' is to act as liaison between local Jews and the government, collect dues, supervise Jewish religion, educational services, and loyalty to France.
The Central Consistory in Paris is to be headed by a Chief Rabbi, obliged to wear a priestly mitre, who coordinates general Jewish affairs. Their first Chief Rabbi is German born DAVID SINTZHEIM (see 1789).
 
1809
April 15 – May 31: The First Serbian Revolutionary War, near Fortress of Niš, against the Ottoman Empire. When the tides of war changed and it became clear that the Turks would win, Serbian commander Stevan Sinđelić sacrifices himself and the remaining Serbian forces in an unprecedented act of bravery, blowing up the gunpowder storage and taking out thousands of enemy soldiers in the process. In order to silence the rebellion and frighten the people,
Hurshid Pasha of of Niš then has a ten foot tower built using over 900 skulls of the fallen Serbian soldiers. He orders that the heads of the Serb victims be collected, skinned, and that the skulls be built into a tower.
This Tower of skulls is built along the road to Constantinople, as a warning to anyone rising against the Ottoman Empire.
Battle of Čegar
  1811
In Western Germany – Jews in Frankfurt (incorporated by NAPOLEON into the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806) are no longer obliged to live in the Ghetto as a consequence of the influence of French Revolutionary ideals.
Napoleon's Frankfurt
President James Madison
1812
In Berlin, Germany – The size of the Jewish congregation in Brandenburg has grown to 3,300 members.
March 11: In Prussia – Jews obtain civil rights, but not full equality and are still excluded from state employment, after the edict of King FREDERICK WILLIAM. Full equality is only available to them after 'Christian' baptism.
 
June 18: The United States of America (President James Madison) declares war on the United Kingdom.
1813
October 16-19: Near Leipzig, south-east Saxony, Germany – The French forces of Emperor NAPOLEON are defeated in a battle leaving dead about 38,000 French soldiers (including Polish and Italian troops as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine) and 55,000 allied soldiers of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden.
  1814
March 29: In Denmark – Jews are given equal rights.
April 1: In France – Freedom of religion for Jews is restored.
  1815
June 18, Sunday: In Europe – In the Battle of Waterloo 55 Jewish artillerymen (under the Prussian flagKingdom of Prussia in the Seventh Coalition fighting the French forces) are killed, but their widows receive no pension because from 1815 onward Jewish volunteers had no claim to any provision by the state.
 In the
United States – American Secretary of State (later President) JAMES MONROE removes Jewish MORDECAI NOAH from being US Consul in Tunis (Muslim country) because –
"the religion which you profess [is] an obstacle to the exercise of your consular functions".
In GermanyThe brothers JACOB and WILHELM GRIMM compose 'The Jew in the Thorn-Bush' which expresses the 'demonic' character of the Jew in Germanic thought.
  In
Britain – The Duke of Wellington's military campaign in France (against Napoleon) is financed by Jewish NATHAN MAYER ROTHSCHILD.
 
  1817
In France – The slave trade is banned, but some traders in Nantes continue the cruel and now illegal practice.
See: 1848
  1819
In Jerusalem – The Greek Orthodox buy the right to rebuild the Holy Sepulchre Church.
Muslims object which leads to a full scale rebellion that is put down by Muslim troops from Damascus. The heads of 46 of the ringleaders are sent to Damascus.
The Greek Orthodox Church erases all history of a Latin presence at the site, and the graves of King BALDWIN I and GODREY of Bouillon are thrown out.
No Christian sect can be trusted with the door key of the Holy Sepulchre Church so it is given to a Muslim family to control.
 
Summer:
In Germany – citizens of Würzburg, Heidelberg, Frankfurt, and Hamburg, riot against Jews, plundering Jewish shops, as they chant the old Crusader war-cry 'Hep hep' (Hierosolyma est perdita – Jerusalem is lost).
 
 In Bosnia
Governor RUZDI PASHA uses a trumped-up charge to levy the Jews of Sarajevo for 50,000 Groschen. He later increases this to 500,000 to be paid within three days, imprisons ten of Sarajevo's leading Jews (among whom is Rabbi MOSHE DANON) and threatens to execute them if the fine is not paid.
The night before the execution, contrary to custom on Sabbath-eve, observant Jew RAFAEL LEVI goes out to seek the aid of the Muslim community. In the morning three-thousand Muslims under leadership of AHMED BARJAKTAR BJELAVSKI, a local commander of the Bjelave neighbourhood of Jews and Muslims, storm the gates of the Governor's palace and rescue Rabbi DANON and the rest of the prisoners, then march to the local synagogue where the story of Purim is recounted to them.
(Accordingly, the rescue is later dubbed the Sarajevo Purim).
Subsequently, 249 Muslim dignitaries attach their signatures to a document addressed to the Turkish Sultan denouncing the cruelty of RUZDI PASHA.
Muslims rescue Jews
  1820
In Britain – Anti-Semite and radical social reformer, WILLIAM COBBETT, publicly attacks 'Jew-dogs' who turn London into a 'Jew Wen'.

Israel's Right to Canaan/Palestine The Victim Mentality Cycle


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