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Twelfth Dynasty Egyptian Embalming Practice
  The Hebrew patriarchs, Jacob, and his favoured son Joseph, were prepared for burial according to Egyptian practices of their time.  
  "And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father.So the physicians embalmed Israel [Jacob].
Forty days were required for it, for that is how many are required for embalming. And the Egyptians wept for him seventy days."
Genesis 50:2-3
of Joseph –
"They embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt."
Genesis 50:26
It is probable that the example of these patriarchs influenced the form of burial among many of the following generations of Israelites in Egypt, particularly among the more affluent of Goshen (where Israel lived).
dynasty coffins were rectangular, in which the body was placed lying on its left side, after completion of the embalming process. The coffin itself was always aligned on a north-south axis so that the corpse faced the east, the direction of the rising sun. (Just as later Israel's Tabernacle and its Jerusalem Temple both faced East).
The embalming process was both a technical and a ritual process, supervised by the 'Overseer of Mysteries' (the Hery Seshta), with specialists for the various tasks. Immediately after death the body was taken to a tent called 'Place of Purification' (ibw) for washing in a natron solution (natron is a naturally occurring compound mainly of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, used where we would today use soap and toothpaste). Then the body was moved to the next tent, called the 'House of Beauty' (per nefer) where the mummification process was carried out.
A specialist now marked the place on the left flank of the body's abdomen where an incision was to be made. Then, a specially appointed person stepped forward and made a deep cut through the abdomen wall, using a special obsidian blade (known as an Ethiopian stone, due to its origin). This person immediately fled the scene, being ceremonially chased away by the embalming team, to show respect and assure the corpse that no harm was meant.
The internal organs, except the heart and kidneys, were often removed via this opening and the brain removed via the nostrils. However, in contrast to the New Kingdom period (from the 18th Dynasty), the brain was usually discarded and the internal organs were not always removed. The internal cavities were rinsed with a mixture of spices and palm wine (never frankincense). The interior was often packed with natron packets to dry it out. Dry natron was then heaped over the body to draw out any remaining body fluids.
After forty days, the natron packets were replaced with clean ones and resin-soaked bandages to keep the body's shape. The incision was now stitched closed. The body weight had now been reduced by about 75 per cent. The process was completed by wrapping in resin soaked bandages, which took about fifteen days.
Middle Kingdom coffins usually had eyes painted on the left exterior, level with the face, to represent the expectation of the corpse (which lay within on its left side) of a future resurrection as sure as the rising of the sun which it faced.

Jacob and Joseph 430 Years in Mizra´im

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