The Thomas Pages homepage
World Weather
A date-listing of events and conditions to help construct an idea
of climatic fluctuations and other natural events
as a background to human history.

Please – let the earth breath!
For the sake of Him who made it!
Human migrations, associated wars, and the development of civilizations has been hugely affected by our earth's climate and its fluctuations in weather patterns, particularly for agrarian economies, which means for most of human history.
The sovereign care  of God's wisdom in this field is a useful perspective to hold in our understanding of history.
See also:
The Genesis Prologue
This brief history of world weather should be seen against the background of the historically unique
 Rainbow–Covenant of God 
concerns the four particular life-forms
preserved during the 370-day Flood of Noah –
1. humankind;  2. birds;  3. domesticated; and  4. wild animals.
(Genesis 9:8-17 and continues today as shown in Revelation 4:3)
       Please note:    Bible Genealogy is NOT world chronology ...
For instance, the age of Adam at his death is only given from the time he began to age (as for his descendants also, from their birth), and his aging only began after his lost access to the Tree of Life (Genesis 3:22).
We do not know how long the period was before this event, etc.
About 9,000
This protective water-vapor canopy originally around earth atmosphere collapsed in the
first 40-days of the 370 days
of the continuing global
tsunami of Noah and
from the same cause.
See: Probable Cause
BC, certain cycles of our home planet combine to give a specially warm period for the northern hemisphere (Holocene) with significant effects. These cycles are:
The changing position of the earth in its orbit relative to the time of year, known as precession of the equinoxes, with a cycle of 19 to 21,000 years. This cycle affects climate and has thus left its mark in the rock layers of earth's crust.
The wobble in the earth's spin about its axis, varies between 22.1° and 24.5° tilt during a cycle of 41,000 years. The so-called Holocene Maximum (c.7000 to c.3000 BC) apparently had an axial tilt of 24°.
Earth's tilt is currently 23° 27’ and decreasing.
And the orbital eccentricity of our planet about every 100,000 years.


Note, one of the great
coincidences of astronomy:
our moon
is 400 times smaller and
also 400 times closer
than our sun,
total solar eclipses
are possible.
Note: maximum temperatures during our last interglacial period were higher than the current interglacial period, and certain Greenhouse gases, principally CO2, were more abundant then than is so today. Within this continuing process many minor fluctuations do occur for reasons that are still largely speculative.
Also, contrary to much popular science, the latest analysis of geological evidences has found no correlation between carbon dioxide levels and changes in world climate. But, variations in the level of cosmic radiation correlate directly with major wet and dry cycles in earth history. Cosmic rays provide the ionization needed in the atmosphere to stimulate cloud formation and thus rainfall.
Japanese scientists say that silicon is likely the mystery element in the Earth's inner core, claiming progress on solving one of the planet's deepest secrets. Consensus has long been that the centre of the planet is composed of about 85 percent iron and 10 percent nickel, with sulphur, oxygen and silicon prime candidates for the other five percent. But geophysicist Eiji Ohtani at Tohoku University in northern Japan and his research team suggest that silicon is the most likely candidate. The core comprises an outer layer of liquid iron and nickel, and an inner layer — a hot dense ball of mostly iron.
Ohtani presented his team's work at a meeting in December 2016 of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.
In addition,
the relative behaviour of our sun, not only seasonal in the equinox-progression, as in 1 above, but also by its sun spot cycles appears to trigger changes in climate. For instance, for seventy years from 1645 AD there was no recorded sun spot activity, which, it is alleged, led to a cold period becoming a minor ice age. The sun spot cycle usually averages at 10.28 years, varying between nine and fourteen years. This sun spot cycle seems to be affected by the magnetosphere of planet Jupiter influencing the stability of loops forming in the sun's magnetic field which give rise to sun spots.
sun also appears to have a brightness cycle of 206 years of which we are now about midway, which may explain a 150 year Yucatan dry period which appears to have helped collapse the Mayan civilization. (See 900 AD).
206 year sun cycle
Some major earthquakes are also noted below as they account for more than 10% of deaths from natural hazards; although worldwide the earth actually experiences about 500,000 earthquakes each year if all are counted.

God Cares!

and maintains the

Protection Covenant
represented by the rainbow

The Seven
Covenants of God
A Very Rough Summary of
Major Climate Fluctuations in Human History

2700 BC/BCE             
   1800 BC
Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch
    950 AD Medieval Warm Period 250-years
   | 300-years    |
  1500 BC     1200 AD
  1350 BC
Late Bronze Age Optimum
    1200 AD
Medieval Glaciation
  | 100-years   |
  1250 BC     1460 AD
  900 BC
Iron Age Climate Pessimum /
Iron Age Cold Epoch
    1460 AD
Brief Climatic Improvement
  | 600-years   |
  300 BC     1560 AD
  200 BC
Roman Age Optimum
    1560 AD
Little Ice Age
  | 500-years   |
  300 AD     1890 AD
  450 AD
Dark Ages Cold Period /
Migration Period Pessimum
    1890 AD
Modern Climatic Optimum
  | 450-years   |
  900 AD     2020 AD
Earth's Wobble

The level of radiation/heat from our sun is affected by the number of sun-spots on the surface of the sun, which number is affected by the magnetic patterns on its surface.
The magnetic patterns on sun's surface are affected by the position of Jupiter in its orbit, for the magnetic field of Jupiter is so large it encompasses our sun,
— hence the natural cycles of climatic change which have so affected human history –
c.128000-112000 The Eemian interglacial in which world sea-level is 4 to 6 metres (13-20 feet) higher than today.
In Mossel Bay, Western Cape, South Africa – high quantity of microlith spear-points at Pinnacle Point cave 13B in the coastal cliffs and cave deposits indicate that at this time abundant game was available to its hunter-gatherer population in a time of very low sea levels and higher rain fall in this area which provides a broad well-watered grassy coastal plain, while most of Africa is desert and the earth endures an ice age.
(The stone used was apparently heat-treated with fire so that it would flake properly and could then be fashioned to give a sharp edge down one side and a blunt back on the other which allowed them to be glued onto a wooden shaft, creating a deadly yet lightweight spear).
Photographed by the Hubble telescope, April 3, 2017, Jupiter, to the right, is 4.45 Astronomical Units from Earth (415 million miles or 668 million km)
Illustration by Peter Trusler,
Monash University/CU Boulder.
A science team led by Sander van der Kaars of Monash University in Australia using information from a sediment core drilled in the Indian Ocean off the coast of southwest Australia to help reconstruct past climate and ecosystems on the Australian continent, showed the core contains layers of material blown and washed into the ocean over time, and so looking deeper in the sediments is the same as looking deeper into the past. The team’s paper on this subject was published online January 20, 2017 in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Communications which states that some of the large creatures that once roamed Australia – what scienitsts call Australia’s ancient megafauna – didn’t disappear due to climate change as had been proposed earlier. Instead, the evidence suggests that humans were the primary cause of these unique creatures’ sudden extinction some 45,000 years ago.
Artist’s concept in left margin of a 1-ton predatory lizard Megalania prisca in Australia roughly 50,000 years ago, preying on the giant, flightless bird known as Genyornis newtoni. Earlier research showed that early humans in Australia preyed on this bird, too.
Prior to that time, there were 1,000-pound kangaroos in Australia, 2-ton wombats, 25-foot-long lizards, 400-pound flightless birds, 300-pound marsupial lions and Volkswagen-sized tortoises. After this time, these huge creatures had disappeared.
A swarm of comet fragments strike earth, decimating animal populations and triggering a mini ice-age.
Monsoon rains begin to penetrate into northern Africa changing the Sahara area to lush green vegetation.
A 290 km length of coastal shelf of the Møre coast in the Norwegian Sea collapses (total volume of 3,500 km3 of debris) causing a huge tsunami, striking Scotland and depositing sediment in Montrose Basin, the Firth of Forth, up to 80 km inland and 4 metres above current normal tide levels
Kennewick Man's Skull
Britain becomes an island.
The Mediterranean Sea breaks through with devastating force to fill the Black Sea basin (~ 50 cubic km. a day). (See National Geographic report). The shift of this water mass triggers earthquakes throughout the region, and mass human migrations (Indo-European). (see 2715 BC also).
Mt. Mazama in America's Pacific North West erupts violently, leaving ash deposits over stone tools of the earliest inhabitants. These help to date the earlier caucasian Ainu-type (Jomon) 'Kennewick' man's remains from this area. (The earliest human inhabitant of North America discovered to date).
Egypt forms
The Nile river changes its course, from feeding the North African lakes, to its approximate present route into the Mediterranean Sea.
In Mesoamerica – planting of maize begins in forest-cleared land.
Human migration from the Sahara into the Nile valley begins as a result of climate changes.
In Egypt – A period of significantly higher Nile floods begins, continuing until c.2500 BC.
World sea level stabilizes to approximately its present level. 
The drying out of the Sahara area destroys its cattle culture and drives its inhabitants away, adding to the population of the Nile valley, and bringing the cattle-cult and mummification of the dead (including the dog/jackal-headed Anubis) with them. (University of Rome archaeological research).
Catastrophic Black Sea land subsidence, according to dendrochronology (tree-ring dating), which drowns all Early Bronze Age settlements in that region under what is now 8-10 metres of water.
Earth climate cools, putting once flourishing settlements in the higher latitudes, such as in the Orkney islands north of Scotland, under great stress.
In Mesoamerica – Farming of domesticated sunflower seeds and cotton spreads.
There is evidence of a huge meteor strike devastating southern 'Iraq'/Mesopotamia at this date according to tree-ring dating (dendrochronology) which would have led to the breakdown of these kingdoms (other date estimates vary between c.2400-2100 BCE). Dead Sea level now drops by about 100 metres.
c.2345 The city of Troy (level IIg) is utterly devastated by fire as well as the region to Tell Leilan (possibly by a meteor shower).
East Africa, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Gulf of Oman, Aegean, Indus experience an abrupt climate change.
In Egypt – A period of low Nile floods begins that includes periodic severe famines, until c.1950 BC.
In Egypt – Climatic changes hasten the end of Egypt's Old Kingdom.
In Southern Mesopotamia – Ur civilization collapses under extended severe drought caused by an extended El-Niño in the Pacific Ocean.
The arid period of severe periodic famines, which began from c.2180 BC, now ends.
Drought begins throughout North Africa and the Middle East. The Nile does not rise for seven years.
In Egypt – The Great Seven-year Famine ends with the Egyptian administration restructured over three regions of Egypt and its people grouped into cities, under vizier Joseph.
In Egypt – A period of exceptionally high Nile floods begins, continuing until c.1780 BC/BCE.
Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupts violently.
In Eastern Mediterranean – Minoan island Thera (Santorini) north of Crete explodes (Caphtor=Crete, migration of the Philistines, Amos 9:7), causing volcanic ash, a huge tidal-wave/tsunami, and helping the collapse of Minoan civilization.
In Iceland, the volcano Hekla erupts blanketing Europe in dust that radically changes the climate causing the collapse of Mycenaean Greek civilization, and probably affecting the economies of the Near East.
Mesopotamia is utterly devastated by a long drought which leads to an almost complete breakdown of civil authority.
Earth Cooling! 850
An abrupt cooling of earth-climate begins.
June 4: The Chinese witness the first recorded solar eclipse.
June 15: Total eclipse of the sun.
March 19: The Babylonians report an eclipse of the sun.
July 17: Chinese astronomers report an eclipse of the sun.
In Jutland, Denmark area – A woman about 50-years old is buried in a bog, probably as a ritual human sacrifice, which preserves it from decay (during earliest part of Iron Age in northern Europe), and after its discovery in 1835 it becomes known as the 'Haraldskær Woman' (It is kept today in Vejle, Denmark).
In Eastern Mediterranean – A tsunami during the Persian invasion of Greece helps protect the northern Greek village of Potidaea (modern Nea Poteidaia) from its Persian attackers by drowning many of the invading soldiers. (The incident is referred to by Greek historian Herodotus, and verified in 2012 by German scientists from Aachen University).
Mediterranean Tsunami
In Mesoamerica – Intense drought.
An especially cold wave during the expansion of ancient Greece.
Summer: A series of earthquakes off Greece generate a tsunami in the Maliakos Gulf which affects the course of the Peloponnesian War by forcing the advancing Spartans to abort their planned invasion of Attica. Ancient geographer Strabo reports that throughout Greece parts of islands are submerged, rivers permanently displaced and towns devastated. The tsunami itself hit the coast in the Maliakos Gulf at three different places, reaching towns as far as three quarters of a mile inland. The force of the tsunami was such that at one place a trireme was lifted out of its dock and thrown over a city wall.
An earthquake and a tsunami destroy the prosperous Greek city Helike, lying 2 km away from the sea. The fate of the city, which remained permanently submerged, is often commented upon by ancient writers.
The Colossus of Rhodes (a 107 feet tall statue of the Greek god Helios, which stood in the city of Rhodes in Greece), one of the seven wonders of the aqncient world is destroyed by an earthquake.
A Catastrophic rise in the ocean's eustatic sea level occurs approximately between the years 40 BC to 100 AD. as a result of an abnormal change in world climate. Evidence for this occurrence of a sudden and abnormal rise of the Dead Sea level during this period, consists of various morphological data, and dendrochronology.
Two thousand years earlier a similar rise of the sea level is estimated to have occurred.
Earthquake destroys Qumran (Mesad Hasidim, 'Stronghold of the Pious'), and shakes Jerusalem.
World sea level is about 2 metres (7 feet) below its present level.

AD/CE 17
• Earthquake shakes the Middle East destroying towns in Anatolia (Ephesus, Sardis).
—  The  Christ  of  God  is  crucified!  —
 Severe famine strikes Judaea (Josephus Ant.20.101), as Agabus had prophesied to the Christians in Antioch, Syria, to prepare relief supplies for the Jewish Christians in Judaea (Acts 11:28-30).
Empire declines as
Climate Changes
• In Italy, an earthquake seriously damages the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. (The cities have not yet recovered from this catastrophe when they are completely destroyed in 79 AD).
• In Greece, Corinth is devastated by an earthquake.
• August 24: In Italy, Mount Vesuvius erupts destroying the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae.
• In Mesoamerica – Intense drought.
Earth Cooling! 200
A period of low sunspot activity begins.
Low sunspot activity triggers a period of global cooling.
 Drought across the steppes of Eastern Europe causes migrations of pastoral nomads and serious shrinkage of the Aral and Caspian seas. Salt laden winds from the Aral sea area may have affected climate elsewhere.
This is probably caused by an extended severe El- Niño effect, which also causes the complete collapse of the Moche civilization in South America.
250 or 252
• In Britain – The Thames River feezes for nine weeks.

As some modern preachers
who look to the world
for signs of the End.
Bishop of Carthage Cyprian (in his rebuttal of Demetrian) declares the Death of the World, that the end of world is approaching because of the visible effect of climate cooling –
"The showers of winter fail us for nourishing the seeds; the sun's heat in summer for ripening the corn; nor in springtide do the fields display their usual growth, and the trees of autumn are barren of their accustomed issue... It is a sentence passed upon the world, it is God's law, that as things rose so they should fall, as they waxed so should grow old, the strong become weak, and the great become little, and when they have become weak and little, they end." (Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiaticorum Latinorum, iii.i.352-3; quoted in A New Eusebius)
This onset of global cooling also forces the Goths to migrate southward to survive, which triggers the Gothic war when the Gothic tribes collide with the Roman empire, and in the following years plague ravages the empire.
• In Britain – The Thames River feezes for nine weeks.
• In Cyprus an unending 36-year drought causes its inhabitants to leave.
The entire Back Sea freezes over.
• Sunrise, July 21: a devastating earthquake in the Hellenic trench off the coast of Crete, estimated at 8 or higher on the Richter scale, causes a tsunami that strikes the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, particularly Alexandria and the Nile Delta, killing thousands and hurling ships nearly two miles inland. It causes widespread destruction in central and southern Greece, northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, and Sicily, and in Crete nearly all towns are destroyed. The quake was generated in a steep fault in the Hellenic trench near Crete. (The anniversary of this disaster was still commemorated annually at the end of the 6th century in Alexandria as a "day of horror).
Terrible Earthquake!
The relatively numerous literary references to earthquakes in this time which is otherwise characterized by a paucity of historical records strengthens the case for a period of heightened seismic activity. Kourion on Cyprus, for example, is known to have been hit by five strong earthquakes within a period of eighty years, leading to its permanent destruction.
 The Migration Period Pessimum (MPP, also known as Dark Ages Cold Period) begins in large areas of central Europe and Scandinavia, causing the retreat of agriculture, including pasturing, with consequent reforestation, and decline of the Roman Empire. (It lasted to about 900 AD, and is followed by the Medieval Warm Period from about 950 to 1250 AD).
Eastern Hemisphere Map
of distribution of peoples
 May 20/29: Earthquake strikes Antioch, Syria, followed by fire, killing about 250,000, and causing an uplift of its port of Seleucia-Pereia of ~0.7–0.8M and subsequent silting up which makes it unusable.
• A violent storm shatters Mecca's sacred Ka'ba (meaning cube). 
• November 29: An earthquake estimate at 8.4 magnitude strikes Japan off the shore of the Kii Peninsula, Nankaido, Shikoku, Kii, and Awaji region, followed by a huge tsunami.
• September 11: An earthquake wrecks Jerusalem, collapsing the eastern and western sides of the Dome of the Rock. The 'Nea' church complex is also destroyed and not rebuilt. 
• In Mesoamerica – A dry period.
A blast of gamma rays striking earth causes a spike in the formation of C-14 in the atmosphere, about 20 times higher than the normal rate of variation in the last 3,000 years, probably lasting about 2-seconds. Scientists speculate that it could have been cause by two 'black holes' colliding and converging. (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records a "red crucifix" in the sky after sunset in 774 which may point to an unrecognised astronomical event which caused the radiation burst).
C-14 half-life of
• An earthquake seriously damages the dome of the Anastasis in Jerusalem, and a locust plague devastates the countryside which leads to severe famine in Palestine. 
 In Mesoamerica – Mayan cities are abandoned as drought destroys their economy.
850 (±30)
In Roopkund, India (about 16,000 feet above sea level) – An exceptional powerful hail storm kills about 300 people. Trapped in the valley with nowhere to hide or seek shelter, the "hard as iron” cricket ball-sized [about 23 centimeter/9 inches circumference] hailstones come by the thousands, resulting in bizarre sudden death.
Their remains lie in the lake for 1,200 years until their discovery in 1942 by a British forest guard H K Madhwal.
• December 22: c.200,000 die in Damghan, Iran; and 45,000 die in an earthquake in Corinth, Greece, but this is sometimes given as being in November.
Folke Vilgerdson of Norway names Iceland 'Iceland' from his experience of a severe winter and its sea-ice filling the fjord in a failed attempt to settle. (In 874, Ingolf Arnason succeeded).
• July 13: The Sendai region of northern Honshu, Japan is struck by a major earthquake of an estimated magnitude of 8.6 on the surface wave magnitude scale, followed by a tsunami that causes flooding extending 4 km inland from the coast. The town of Tagajo is destroyed, with an estimated 1,000 casualties.
• March 23: c.150,000 die in an earthquake near Ardabil, Iran, near the Caspian sea.
 Collapse of the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan Peninsula resulting from a 150 year drought precipitated by the 206 year cyclical brightening of the sun.
c.930 The Medieval warm period begins.  
There is evidence in North Africa for low Nile discharge during the years 930 to 1070 AD/CE.
934 In Iceland – the Eldgjá eruption that produces almost 20 km3 of lava.  
Erik the Red discovered new land West of Iceland and calls it 'Greenland'.
• Europe enjoys 300 years of warmer weather that increases harvests and allows wheat to be cultivated much further north and at higher elevations.
See Graph
• An earthquake disturbs the surface area of Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The subsidence around 'Solomon's Stables' is filled up with archaeologically rich debris.
• A star explodes in the constellation of Taurus which later forms the Crab nebula.
• A seven year famine begins in Egypt during which the Nile does not rise.
• c.230 000 die in an earthquake in Aleppo, Syria.
There is evidence in North Africa for low Nile river discharge from 1180 to 1350.
There is a permanent far side of the moon, but no permanent dark side, because any given lunar location experiences night for about two weeks, followed by about two weeks of daylight. The moon does rotate on its axis. But Earth’s strong gravitational pull has slowed it down such that today the moon takes as long to rotate as it does to orbit once around Earth. Astronomers would say that the moon is tidally locked with Earth. For that reason, one side of the moon always faces Earth, but it is not always dark – as you can see just by looking at the sky tonight.
As related by astronomers Clube and Napier in their book The Cosmic Serpent, a strange event is observed to affect the Moon, which may be explained by a large impact on its hidden face, originating the Giordano Bruno crater.
A number of observations suggest that catastrophic cometary or meteoritic impacts around the same time
also affects the Pacific Ocean basin:
Maori legends of great fires destroying forests and the moa bird, to be associated to the recently found Tapanui craters;
• dynastic changes and migrations throughout Polynesia;
• very intense El Niño activity with flooding of the coastal Peruvian regions;
• demise of the local Moche civilizations, and the birth of the Incas civilization higher in the Andes;
• the emigration of the Aztects from the Pacific coast to the interior in the most well protected area from tsunamis;
• unusually intense typhoon activity in the Chinese-Japanese sea;
• unusually strong floods in Northern China with diversion of the course of the Huang Ho river;
• unusually cold weather in the Mongolian plateau, probably a main reason for the Mongolians invading nearby areas;
• a great sign in the sky seen by the boy Gengis Khan forecasting his future of world master;
• the number of comets seen in the sky as recorded by Chinese astronomers is unusually high.
Earth Cooling! 1250
• Atlantic pack ice begins to grow, making passages between Norway, Iceland and Greenland more difficult.
• c.60 000 die in an earthquake near Silicia, Turkey.
 Earth cooling worsens, leading to the collapse of Greenland civilization.
October: In China – The fleet of KUBLAI KHAN, carrying 23,000 Mongol Chinese and Korean soldiers with 7,000 sailors sail to the Japanese island of Tsushima, and land near Hakata Nay.
The weather prevents
Japan from becoming
a province of China
October 20: A storm wind causes the KHAN's fleet to drag anchors and a third of his fleet (300-ships) are lost and and half his army drowns.
• Life expectancy as reflected in the records of the British royal family (the best-off in society) is 35.28 years.
In China – Three separate invasion fleets of the KAHN sail for Japan to rendezvous in Takeshima Bay. But –
July 30: Another terrible storm strikes the area and thousands of the KAHN's ships sink.
Again weather prevents
Japan from becoming
a province of China
In China – KUBLAI KHAN builds a third invasion fleet but abruptly cancels the invasion of Japan.
• c.100 000 die in an earthquake near Chihli, China.
 In southern Africa, the iron-age Mapungubwe civiliation of Greater Zimbabwe dies as rainfall decreases.
•  A magnitude 7.1 quake and tsunami hit Kamakura, Japan's de facto capital, killing 23,000 after resulting fires.
• Warm summers in Europe are no longer dependable.
• A large tsunami strikes Crete, Rhodes, Alexandria and Acre in Palestine.
The Great Famine
10–25% of many cities die.
 In Britain and Northern Europe, torrential rain and floods cause a general famine. Hundreds of thousands of peasants die of starvation. (Europe does not fully recover until 1325). These years begin a period of unpredictable weather which lasts into the 19th century.
The futility of prayer undermines the institutional authority of the Church.
Incidents of cannibalism occur in Ireland and other parts of Northern Europe.
Unpredictable weather
• March 3: A solar eclipse.
• August: Epidemics of pneumonia and bubonic plague sweep Britain until the end of 1349. Life expectancy for the period until 1375 AD/CE drops to 17.33 years.
1349 • September 9: Earthquake devastates the Molise–Latium–Abruzzi regions of the Italian Apennines, razing the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, among others. Sun's Spörer Minimum begins
1356 • October 18, ~10.00 PM: Northwest Switzerland is struck by an earthquake which completely destroys Basel and every structure within a 30 kilometre radius, with an intensity of about 6.2.
• The Black Death reappears in England and ravages Europe. The survivors of the first wave of Black Death are better able to resist the disease than were people in general during the first wave in 1348, and the second wave of plague is less severe than the first wave.
• October, Comet 55P/1366 U1 (Temple-Tuttle) passes Earth at only 8.9 lunar distances.
• March 15: Earthquake located in Amer, Catalonia, Spain, with intensity estimated between 8 and 9 on the Richter scale, destroys the town.
• May 15: Earthquake epicentre located in Olot, Catalonia, Spain, with intensity estimated at 9.
• December 5: Earthquake strikes Naples, Italy, killing about 35,000.
• April 4: A meteor shower strikes over the Chinese city of Ch'ing-yang killing more than 10,000 people.
"Stones fell like rain in the Ch’ing-yang district. The larger ones were 4 to 5 catties (斤, about 1.5 kg), and the smaller ones were 2 to 3 catties (about 1 kg). Numerous stones rained in Ch'ing-yang. Their sizes were all different. The larger ones were like goose's eggs and the smaller ones were like water-chestnuts. More than 10,000 people were struck dead. All of the people in the city fled to other places"
February 13: A comet/asteroid appears to have struck the Pacific Ocean 250 km SW of New Zealand creating a huge tsunami.
• September 20: An earthquake and tsunami hit the port in Wakayama, Japan. Between 30-40 thousand deaths are estimated. The building around great Buddha of Kamakura (7m above sea-level) is swept away by the tsunami.
 England experiences foul weather, a poor harvest, and high mortality from 'sweating sickness' (profuse sweat, foul smell, thirst, delirium, death within a few hours of onset).
• An earthquake destroys San Salvador, capital of El Salvador, Central America.
• February 26: Over 200,000 people are killed in an earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal.
• The first Spanish settlement in Venezuela, Nueva Cádiz, with a population between 1000 and 1500, is destroyed in an earthquake followed by tsunami.
• Probable beginning of worldwide glacial expansion.
Much of the earth endures the so-called Little Ice Age. Global average temperature drops between 1° and 2° Celsius, ice sheets advance over farms and valleys in Greenland, the Baltic sea and Thames river freeze regularly, crops fail, and famine and disease affect Europe.
Iceland becomes isolated as its sea ice does not melt in summer.
Little Ice Age
• January 23: in Shaanxi c.830,000 die in an earthquake in Shen-shu, China, measuring ~8 on the Richter scale. An 840km wide area in the provinces of Shaanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiansu and Anhui is destroyed, which is larger than 24 countries, including Singapore, Tonga and Bahrain.
• In England, Elizabethan preacher, John King, declares –
"Our years are turned upside down; our summers are no summers; our harvests are no harvests".
• February 3: An earthquake of 8.1 in Japan followed by a tsunami hits 700 houses (41%) of Hiro, Wakayama Prefecture. More than 5,000 are drowned in an enormous tsunami with a maximum known rise of water of 30m is observed on the coast from the Boso Peninsula to the eastern part of Kyushu Island. The eastern part of the Boso Peninsula, the coast of Tokyo Bay, the coast of the prefectures of Kanagawa and Shizouka, and the southeastern coast of Kochi Prefecture suffered especially heavily.

Sun's 'Maunder Minimum' begins
(See Sunspot Chart Below)
running from c.1645 to c.1715
• In England, the Thames freezes over.
• January 30, Tuesday morning: A huge tidal surge strikes Britain from the south west driving more than six miles inland and drowning more than 3,000 persons, hundreds of thousands of cattle and sheep, and destroying the local economy on both sides of the Bristol channel.
German astronomer Johannes Kepler discovers that the planets move around the sun in an elliptical path instead of in circles as it was commonly thought at the time. The discovery helps astronomers predict the motion of the planets more accurately than before.
• A total eclipse of the moon coincides with the northern hemisphere winter solstice.
1662, German-Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius named a star Mira, which means wonderful in Latin. Lying in the constellation Cetus, the brightness of this star varies for about 11 months. Mira's changeability pattern is discovered by Frisian astronomer Johannes Holwarda in 1638. In 2007, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) reveals Mira's luminous tail of gas that's more than a dozen light-years long. This is the material that Mira has shed, leaving it behind as it speeds through the galaxy at some 80 miles per second (130 kms per second).
1645 • No sun spot activity is recorded for the following seventy years.
1650  Climatic minimum.
Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens is the first person to observe the disks surrounding Saturn. Composed of billions of particles of ice and rock, the rings are about 167,770 miles (270,000 kms) in diameter but relatively thin a maximum thickness of about 0.62 miles (1 km). NASAs Voyager spacecraft later finds that the planet's rings are made up of ringlets, and sends back data that leads to the further discovery of the existence of nine moons of the planet.
Jupiter's Red Spot is a giant, raging storm which is about three and a half times the size of Earth and is in Jupiter's southern hemisphere. This most famous feature of the giant gas planet was first seen by English scientist Robert Hooke in 1664. According to a research published in the Nature journal in July 2016, the hurricane is responsible for blasting the planet's upper atmosphere with heat, which is as high as 2,732 F (1,500 C).
• c.80 000 die in an earthquake near Shemakha, Azerbaijan.
• August 17: c.8,000 die in an earthquake in Turkey measuring ~8 on the Richter scale.
• Mount Etna in Sicily erupts.
• Utrecht, in The Netherlands, is struck by a violent hurricane which demolishes most of the famous Dom Church.
• c.60 000 die in an earthquake in Sicily, Italy.
• December 22: A large tsunami strikes Seikaido-Nankaido, Japan.
NOTE: 1700
• January 26, at 21h00 (9pm): an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale tears about 1,000km along the Cascadia fault line, from mid Vancouver Island, Canada, to northern California, causing a huge tsunami across the Pacific and causing destruction along the Pacific coast of Japan.
On the west coast of Vancouver Island, the tsunami completely destroys the winter village of the Pachena Bay people with no survivors.
• October 28: An 8.4 earthquake and tsunami 25.7-meter-high strikes the Kochi Prefecture, Japan. More than 29,000 houses are wrecked and then washed away, causing about 30,000 deaths. In Tosa, 11,170 houses are washed away and 18,441 people drowned. In OsakaAbout about 700 drown and 603 houses are washed away. The tsunami is 20M high at Tanezaki, Tosa, and 6.58 at Muroto.
 Seventy years of virtually no sun-spot activity now ends, which had caused a mini ice age across our planet, in which, among other, the Norwegian/Norse/Vicking settlements in Greenland are annihilated by attacks of Eskimos/Inuits forced South by the cold.
• c.77,000 die in an earthquake near Tabriz, Iran.
• c.300,000 die in an earthquake in Calcutta, India.
• The Thames river freezes over.
• August 29: Western Hokkaido, Japan, is hit by a tsunami associated with the eruption of the volcano on Oshima island. The cause of the tsunami is thought to have been an undersea landslide triggered by the eruption. 1,467 people are killed on Hokkaido and another 8 in Aomori Prefecture.
• October 28: An earthquake completely destroys Lima and Callao, in Peru.
• November 1, 10h16: An earthquake near Lisbon, Portugal, measuring ~8.7 on the Richter scale, is followed by a tsunami with a maximum height of 15 metres (49 ft), which goes far inland. Between 60,000 and 100,000 people die in Lisbon alone, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history.The tsunami takes just over 4 hours to travel over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to Cornwall, UK. An account by Arnold Boscowitz claimed "great loss of life." It also hits Galway in Ireland, and causes some serious damage to the Spanish Arch section of the city wall.
Nearly 100,000 dead
• April 4, ~8AM: An undersea earthquake of estimated magnitude 7.4 occurred near Yaeyama Islands in Okinawa, Japan. The earthquake is not believed to have directly resulted in any deaths, but a resulting tsunami is thought to have killed about 12,000 people, (9,313 on the Yaeyama Islands and 2,548 on Miyako Islands according to one source). Estimates of the highest seawater run up on Ishigaki Island, range between 30 meters and 85.4 meters. The tsunami put an abrupt stop to population growth on the islands, and was followed by malaria epidemics and crop failures which decreased the population further. It was to be another 148 years before population returned to its pre-tsunami level.
About 12,000 dead
• February 28: c.200,000 die in an earthquake in Iran.
Uranus is identified by German-British astronomer William Herschel. The gas planet gets its bluish surface color from tiny frozen ammonia crystals. The atmosphere is believed to be hydrogen and helium. To date, NASA's Voyager 2 probe is the only spacecraft to visit the planet. A Hubble Space Telescope view reveals Uranus is surrounded by its four major rings and by its satellites.
• Iceland (Laki eruption) is seriously affected by two huge eruptions of lava. Volcanic ash covers the island and 75% of livestock die; 8 months of lava flows and explosions that eject ~14.7 km3 of basaltic lava out of 140 vents along a 23-km-long set of fissures and cones.
• c.50,000 die in an earthquake in Calabria, Italy.
• Iceland suffers terrible famine and about 10,000 people die.
• Major volcanic eruption in Unzen, Japan. Tsunamis are the main cause of death for Japan's worst-ever volcanic disaster, due to an eruption of Mount Unzen in Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. It begins towards the end of 1791 as a series of earthquakes on the western flank of Mount Unzen which gradually moved towards Fugen-daké, one of Mount Unzen's peaks. In February 1792, Fugen-daké starts to erupt, triggering a lava flow which continued for two months. Meanwhile, the earthquakes continue, shifting nearer to the city of Shimabara.
On the night of
21 May, two large earthquakes are followed by a collapse of the eastern flank of Japan's Mount Unzen's Mayuyama dome, causing an avalanche which sweeps through Shimabara and into Ariake Bay, triggering a tsunami. It is not known to this day whether the collapse occurred as a result of an eruption of the dome or as a result of the earthquakes. The tsunami strikes Higo Province on the other side of Ariake Bay before bouncing back and hitting Shimabara again. Out of an estimated total of 15,000 fatalities, around 5,000 is thought to have been killed by the landslide, around 5,000 by the tsunami across the bay in Higo Province, and a further 5,000 by the tsunami returning to strike Shimabara.
The waves reached a height of 330 ft, classing this tsunami as a small mega-tsunami.
About 15,000 dead
• November 5: A violent storm strikes Table Bay, Cape Town, South Africa, wrecking many ships and drowning more than 300 passengers and crew of the destroyed ships.
The bodies recovered are buried in mass graves on Table Bay beach (which is today buried under Cape Town's Foreshore).
Sun's Dalton Minimum
1790 to 1830
Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Discovered by Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi on January 1 this year, the celestial body was earlier considered a planet but when more similar objects were found in the belt, it was reclassified as an asteroid.
(In February 2017, NASA's spacecraft Dawn found evidence of organic material on Ceres).
No sunspots! 1810 • Zero sunspot activity!
1811 • June 2: A violent earthquake rocks Cape Town, South Africa.
1813-14 • In London, the Thames river freezes over for the last time.
• Major volcanic eruption in Tambora, Indonesia which causes the 1816 "Year Without a Summer" in the northern hemisphere.
The year without a summer...
• November 25: A massive earthquake estimated at between 8.8-9.2 on the moment magnitude scale, strikes Sumatra, Indonesia. The coast of Sumatra near the quake's epicentre is hardest hit by the resulting tsunami
• In Jerusalem: many Christian monasteries are damaged by an earthquake.
The Sun newspaper publishes a series of articles later called "The Great Moon Hoax" that vividly describe an ecosystem of trees, rivers, beaches, bison, goats and unicorns, as well as winged, bat-like humanoids living on the moon. Claiming them to have been discovered by astronomer Sir John Herschel using a magnificent new telescope at the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, the paper generates a lot of interest owing to its sensational reporting. They later say that the series was
an attempt to satirize the multitude of ridiculous scientific news stories that were going around at the time.
• November 4: A magnitude 8.4 earthquake strikes near what is today Aichi Prefecture and Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, followed by a tsunami.
• November 5: A magnitude 8.4 earthquake strikes in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, generating a tsunami of 28 meters at Kochi, Japan. The earthquake and tsunami kill 3,000 people. The tsunami washed 15,000 homes away. The number of homes destroyed directly by the earthquake is 2,598; in which 1,443 people died
• November 7: A 7.4 earthquake in Ehime Prefecture and Oita Prefecture, Japan.
The total death-toll from the three quakes and their tsunamis is between 80,000 and 100,000 people.
Nearly 100,000 dead
• November 11, about 22h00 local: An earthquake strikes Ansei Edo (Tokyo region), Japan, killing between 4,500 to 10,000 people. The Japanese era name is changed to bring good luck after 4 tragic quakes and tsunamis in 2 years.
• January 9, 16h24 UTC: earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9 near Fort Tejon in Southern California.
• December 16, 21h00: c.11,000 die in an earthquake in Naples, Italy, measuring ~6.9 on the Richter scale.
Solar Storm 1859
• September 1-2: Solar storm shorts telegraph wires, and starts fires in North America and Europe, and caused bright aurorae to be seen in Cuba and Hawaii.
February 20: A Great Storm ravages England.
• An earthquake strikes San Francisco, California,
• April 2, 4PM: earthquake rocks the Hawaiian islands of an estimated magnitude between 7.5 and 8.0 rocks the southeast coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. It triggers a landslide on the slopes of the Mauna Loa volcano, five miles north of Pahala, killing 31 people. A tsunami then takes 46 additional lives. The villages of Punaluu, Ninole, Kawaa, Honuapo, and Keauhou Landing are severely damaged and the village of 'Apua is destroyed.
• August 16: An earthquake of magnitude estimated at 8.5 strikes the Peru-Chile oceanic trench. The resulting tsunami strikes the port of Arica, Chile, then part of Peru, killing an estimated 25,000 in Arica and 70,000 in all. Three military vessels anchored at Arica, the US warship Wateree and the store ship Fredonia, and the Peruvian warship America, are swept up by the tsunami.
About 70,000 dead

• August 26-27: Major volcanic eruption in Krakatau, Indonesia, causing tsunamis that kill more than 36,000 people on the islands of Java and Sumatra. The island volcano of Krakatoa in Indonesia explodes with devastating fury blowing its underground magma chamber partly empty so that much overlying land and seabed collapses into it. A series of large tsunamis are generated from the collapse, some reaching a height of over 40 meters above sea level. Tsunamis are observed throughout the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and even as far away as the American West Coast, and South America. On the facing coasts of Java and Sumatra the sea flood goes many miles inland and causes such loss of life that one area is never resettled but reverts to jungle and is now the Ujung Kulon nature reserve.
About 36,000 dead
• October 27, 21h38: c.7,273 die in an earthquake in Mino-Owari, Japan, measuring ~8 on the Richter scale.
• June 15, about 19h36 local: A large undersea earthquake off the Sanriku coast of northeastern Honshu, Japan, triggers a tsunami which strikes the coast about half an hour later with waves, which reached a height of 100 feet, killing about 27,000 people.
• June 12, 11h06: c.1,500 die in an earthquake in Assam, India, measuring ~8.3 on the Richter scale.
Earth's axis tilt is
23° 27’ 8.26”
• An earthquake strikes San Francisco, California,
• An earthquake strikes San Francisco, California,
• Major volcanic eruption of Mount Pele, Martinique, killing some 28,000 people in two minutes.
• January 31, 15h36: c.1,000 die in an earthquake in Colombia-Ecuador, measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale.
• April 7: Near Naples, Italy – Mount Vesuvius erupts killing hundreds living in the vicinity. Lava from the volcano devastates areas near the town of Ottaiano, collapsing buildings.
• April
18, o5:12 local (13h12): c.3,000 die in an earthquake in San Francisco, California, USA, measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale, and destroying or damaging 512 blocks in the central business district..
• August 17, 00h40: c.20,000 die in an earthquake in Valparaiso, Chile, measuring 8.2 on the Richter scale.
• January 14: An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica, destroys most of the capital and kills more than 1,000 people.
• December 28, 04h20: more than c.70,000 die in an earthquake and an associated tsunami near Messina, Italy, measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale.
About 70,000 dead
• May 20: The earth passes through the fiery tail of Halley's comet. Many people expected the world to end, and miners in Britain refused to go underground. In America "comet pills" were on sale, claiming to give protection from the comet's effects.
The comet, 13 million miles away, iit up the night sky.
• Major volcanic eruption in Kelud, Java.
• December 16, 12h05: c.200 000 die in an earthquake in Ningxia-Kansu, China, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale.
• March 24: c.5,000 die in an Earthquake in China measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale.
• September 1, 02h58: c.143,000 die in an earthquake near Kanto, Japan, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale. Many die from the Great Tokyo Fire caused by the quake which destroyed over half the brick buildings in the city. Later death toll is given more than 300,000.
About 143,000 dead

• March 7, 09h27: c.3,020 die in an earthquake in Tango, Japan, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
• May 22, 22h32: c.200,000 die in an earthquake near Tsinghai, China, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale.
• July 11, earthquake kills over 400 in the Palestine-Jordan area leaving "not a house in Jerusalem or Hebron… without some damage".
• November 18: An earthquake of magnitude 7.2 beneath the Laurentian Slope on the Grand Banks is felt throughout the Atlantic Provinces of Canada, as far west as Ottawa, and as far south as Claymont, Delaware. The resulting tsunami measures over 7 meters in height and takes about 2½ hours to reach the Burin Peninsula on the south coast of Newfoundland, where 28 people lose their lives in various communities. It also snaps telegraph lines laid under the Atlantic.
• c.70,000 die in an earthquake near Gansu, China, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
About 70,000 dead
• March 2, 17h31: c.2,990 die in an earthquake in Sanriku, Japan, measuring 8.4 on the Richter scale.
• March 11, 01h54: 115 die in an earthquake in Long Beach, California, USA, measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale.
• January 15, 08h43: c.10,700 die in an earthquake in Bihar, India, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
• c.60 000 die in an earthquake near Quetta, Pakistan, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale. Quetta is almost completely destroyed.
About 60,000 dead
Photograph of Niagara Falls during this winter –
• December 26, 23h57: c.32,700 die in an earthquake in Erzincan, Turkey, measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale.
• December 7, 04h35: c.1,223 die in an earthquake in Tonankai, Japan, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
• April 1: The Aleutian Islands tsunami kills 159 people on Hawaii and five in Alaska (the lighthouse keepers at the Scotch Cap Light in the Aleutians). It results in the creation of a tsunami warning system known as the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC), established in 1949 for Oceania countries. The tsunami is known as the April Fools Day Tsunami in Hawaii due to people thinking the warnings were an April Fools prank.
• December 20, 19h19: c.1,330 die in an earthquake in Nankaido, Japan, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
• February: In England the Thames river freezes.
• October 5: c.110,000 die in an earthquake in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale.
• August 22: Off the West Coast of British Columbia, Canada, the Queen Charlotte Island's West coast is struck by an 8.1 magnitude earthquake, Canada's largest quake since 1770.
• August 15, 14h09: c.1,526 die in an earthquake in Assam-Tibet, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale.
• November 5: A tsunami from an undersea earthquake kills 2,336 on the Kuril Islands, USSR.
• December 5: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
• In London the Thames river freezes.
• March 2: In Australia floods kill 200 people and leave 400,000 homeless.
• On the Kamchatka peninsula in eastern Russia, the Besymjanny volcano awakes with a bang following 1,000 years of dormancy and continues to be active, with huge clouds of ash rising on a regular basis. The explosion is one of the most violent volcanic eruptions in the 20th century. Three tectonic plates – the North American Plate, the Okhotsk Plate and the Pacific Plate – collide beneath Kamchatka, with the peninsula's coastal range boasting 30 active volcanoes.
• A flu virus kills nearly four million people in a world pandemic.
• July 9: An earthquake causes a mega-tsunami to reach a height taller than the Empire State Building, measuring over 520 metres (1,706 ft), killing two at Lituya Bay, Alaska, USA. (An earthquake along the Fairweather Fault in the Alaska Panhandle loosened about 40 million cubic yards (30.6 million cubic meters) of rock high above the northeastern shore of Lituya Bay).
Highest tsunami ever!
• February 29, 23h40: c.12,000 die in an earthquake in Agadir, Morocco, measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale.
• May 22, 19h11: c.5,700 die in an earthquake in Chile, measuring 9.5 on the Richter scale, the largest quake ever recorded.
About 10.000 dead
1963 • Major volcanic eruption in Agung, Indonesia.
• In London, the Thames river freezes.
 March 27: A magnitude 9.2 Good Friday Earthquake, causes tsunamis which strike Alaska, British Columbia, California, and coastal Pacific Northwest towns, killing 121 people. The waves are up to 100 feet huigh, and kill 11 people as far away as Crescent City, California.
• July 21: Neil Alden Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 mission, becomes the first man to set foot on the Moon, on the Sea of Tranquillity, at 2:56 and 15 sec GMT. He is followed out of the lunar module Eagle by Col. Edwin Eugene Buzz Aldrin, Jr, USAF, while the command module Columbia piloted by Lt-Col. Michael Collins, USAF orbits above.
• May 31, 20h23: c.66,000 die in an earthquake in Peru, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale.
• The fishing port of Pozzuoli, Italy, rises by over 3 metres, probably due to the subterranean build up of volcanic magma.
• November 6, 11AM the USA explodes a 5 megaton nuclear bomb under Amchika island, Alaska, on a tectonic fault-line, which registers 7 on the Richter scale.
Alaska Nuclear Blast
• June 30: First leap second is added to our time to keep atomic clocks in line with changes in the Earth's slowing rotation.
the six US moon missions from 1969, its astronauts, in order to take rock samples back to earth, unloaded some weight onto the moon's surface, which included human faeces (96 bags of poop, pee, and puke, and core samples, tools, golf balls, photographs, cameras, a gold-plated telescope and random symbolic objects), for the Apollo missions brought back a total of 842 pounds of moon rocks, dust.
Trash on the Moon
US astronaut Eugene Cernan re-entered the Apollo 11 lunar module Challenger in 1972, he cemented his place in history as the last man to set foot on the moon. He later described –
"When we landed on the moon, the dust cleared and it was quiet – I was mesmerised when I looked through the window. When I left the spacecraft I found myself in a paradox: I was in sunshine surrounded by the blackness of space; the blackest black you can conceive. I'm not talking about darkness - darkness is when you're in the shade - think of an eclipse, That's darkness. Blackness is the endlessness of time, the endlessness of space. It's truly another world.
Looking back at the Earth, you see it in all its beauty and splendour. Most of us have only seen it through the painting of artists, or the words of poets and philosophers. But when you're actually there looking at it, it's not like the pictures you see of an image on a black background, it's three-dimensional. You see the multicolours of the Earth, the blue of the oceans, the whites of the snow and clouds.
It doesn't roll through space, there's no strings holding it up, no falcon on which the globe on your desk turns on; it moves with purpose and order and every 12 hours you are looking at the other side of the world."
• February 4, 11h36: c.10,000 die in an earthquake in Haicheng, China, measuring 7 on the Richter scale.
1976 • February 4, 09h01: c.23,000 die in an earthquake in Guatemala, Central America, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale.
July 20: seven years after Apollo 11 landed on the moon – NASA's Viking lands on Mars. They were not the first to do so for in 1971 the USSR’s Mars 3 mission’s lander reached the surface. However, it operated for just 20 seconds before losing contact.
Earth's axis tilt is
23° 26’ 21.44”
• July 27, 19h42: c.500,000 (some put the figure as high as 655,000) die in an earthquake in T'ang-shan, northern China, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale, the second greatest number of casualties in recorded history, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
William D. Nordhaus, a Yale University professor of economics in the US, in his paper,
“Economic Growth and Climate: The Carbon Dioxide Problem” introduces the idea of global warming from carbon dioxide emission.
Nordhaus’s thesis is that uncontrolled emissions “will lead to very large increases in temperature in the coming decades. An increase of more than 2°C goes beyond the “normal range of variation,” he writes, and it will take the world’s temperature to a level unseen in the last 100,000 years. But, understably, Nordhaus fails to note the natural fluctuations of global climate due to the planet Jupiter's magnetic-field-effect on earth's sun. See above.
Unfortunately this view gains such currency that the cyclic effect on solar emissions caused by the magnetic field of the planet Jupiter on our sun becomes ignored.
• c.15 000 die in an earthquake in Iran.
• October 11: An earthquake of 7.5 magnitude strikes the city of El Asnam (formerly Orleansville) in Algeria, killing thousands.
• Major volcanic eruption of Mount St Helens, USA, destroying 10 million trees, but killing only about 60 people.
• December 26, in Rendlesham, UK – the skies above Suffolk are ablaze with strange lights in the biggest UFO sighting in the UK as dozens of witnesses allegedly see an alien aircraft land, a "triangular shaped craft", landing in neighbouring woods in the early hours.
1981 • Britain's lowlands are swamped by a tidal surge.
• May: Comet C/1983 H1 ( IRAS-Araki-Alcock ) passes earth at 12.2 lunar distances.
• July 21: The lowest temperature on the planet is recorded at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica
-128.6 degrees Fahrenheit (-89.2 degrees Celsius).
Lowest temperature
ever recorded.
1984 • March: major volcanic eruption in Mauna Loa, Hawaii.
• September 19, 13h17: c.10,000 Mexicans in Michoacan, die in a major earthquake off the Pacific coast.
• November 13: In Colombia, South America, Nevado del Ruiz erupts causing a sudden surge of meltwater sent massive mudflows down canyons on both the east and west sides of the volcano which kills 25000 people in Armero area.
• Major volcanic eruption in Lake Nyos, Cameroon.
• February 24: A supernova explosion is observed (in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud).
See: March 28, 1993.
When a star of more than about 8 times the mass of our sun reaches the end of its nuclear fuel reserve, it can no longer produce enough energy to keep it from collapsing under its own immense weight. The core of the star collapses, and its outer layers are ejected in a fast moving shock wave. This huge energy release causes the visible supernova we are able to see.
• October 1, 07:40: I Los Angeles, USA, an earthquake of 6.1 on the Richter scale rocks the city for 20 seconds killing seven people and injuring at least 100.
• December 7, 07h41: c.25,000 die in an earthquake in Spitak, Armenia, measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale.
• March: In Quebec, Canada – A strong solar storm knocks out the power grid causing 6 million people to lose power.
• October 18: An earthquake of 7.1 magnitude strikes San Francisco bay area, California, USA.
• June 20: c.40,000 die in an earthquake near Gilan, Iran, measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale. Iran was willing to accept aid from any country except Israel and South Africa.
• July 16: At least 100 people die in an earthquake in the Philippines.
• Major volcanic eruption in Pinatuba, Philippines.
• May 11: In Bangladesh – the death toll reaches nearly 250,000 from cyclone which devastated the coastal plain, sweeping away whole communities.
• March 28: A type Ib supernova explosion (massive star that undergoes core collapse) is observed in the M81 spiral galaxy.
Supernova explosions are one of the most important 'producers' of chemical elements in the Universe, like the oxygen we all breathe.
• September 29, 22h25: c.9,748 die in an earthquake in Latur-Killari, India, measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale.
Earth Impact Database
• A solar storm causes major malfunctions to two communications satellites, disrupting television and radio services throughout Canada.
• July: Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 breaks apart and collides with the planet Jupiter
• January 16, 20h46: c.5,502 die in an earthquake in Kobe, Japan, measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale.
• The rotation of the earth changes from a long term slow-down (an extra second in a little less than a year due to a gradual increase in the moon's orbit) to a short term acceleration, most probably from the descent of a large mass in the molten interior of our planet.
The Moon is spiraling away from Earth at an average rate of 3.8cm per year, resulting in a gradual slowing of the earth's rotation.
• July 17, 08h49: c.2,183 die in an earthquake in New Guinea, measuring 7 on the Richter scale.
• November 20: The International Space Station (ISS) is launched into permanent orbit. America's NASA and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) worked cooperatively to establish the space station as a living laboratory in space. ISS is the only habitable laboratory currently operating in microgravity. In August 2016 NASA celebrates 100,000 orbits of the ISS.
NASA's website on ISS's benefits for humanity
• November 23: An Arctic cold wave is reported to have killed 71 people across Europe over the last three days. 36 deaths were in Poland and 24 in Romania and Bulgaria.
• January 25, 1819: c.1,185 die in an earthquake in Colombia measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale.
• May 10-12: The solar wind virtually stops (98%+ reduction) during Jupiter's perihelion (closest to the sun), allowing earth's magnetic field to expand with a temporary cooling effect.
• August 17, 00h01: c.14,118 die in an earthquake in Izmit, north-western Turkey, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale, leaving hundreds of thousands without homes or essential services..
• September 20, 17h47: c.2,400 die in an earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan, measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
• November 12, 16h57: c.894 die in an earthquake in Duzce, Turkey, measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale. The August and November in Turkey quakes killed about 20,000 people.
• Tide-gauge records suggest an average global sea-level rise over the past century of 0 to 3mm per year, though there is no firm evidence of acceleration in these rates.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 22,256
sea-level rise

Our sun flips its poles

• January 13, 17h33: c.844 die in an earthquake in El Salvador. measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
• January 26, 03h16: c.20,085 die in an earthquake in Gujarat, India, measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
 February 15: Our sun reverses its magnetic polarity as it reaches the peak of its 11-year sunspot cycle.
• Saturday, June 23, 20:33:14 UTC (15:33:14 local time): and earthquake strikes Peru measuring 8.2 on the Richter Scale killing 75 directly and 26 more in the resultant tsunami and disappearance of a further 64.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 23,534
The 200-year sunspot cycle appears to be currently running at 211.4 years.

See Peru 2007
• March 25, 14h56: c.1,000 die in Hindu Kush Region, Afghanistan, in an earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 27,454
• May 21: c.2,266 die in an earthquake in Boumerdes, Algeria, measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale.
• August 10: Temperatures peak at 38.1° Celsius in England.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 31,419
• Sunday 26, December: 00:59 GMT (7.59 am local time): 283,106 die in ten countries hit by tsunamis resulting from an undersea earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, measuring 9.1 on the Richter scale.
Deadliest tsunami
in recorded history!
Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Sumatra, and Thailand, elephants, disregarding the authority of their handlers trumpetted a warning and bolted for higher ground about about hour before the devastating tsunami struck. In some places dogs (Sane beach, near Phuket, and Galle in Sri Lanka) and buffalo (Bang Koey, Thailand) are reported to have done similar things.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 31,194
Youtube Video
2005 NASA's
Cassini probe spots geyser-like jets of water vapor and other volatile materials blasting from the south pole of the Saturn's moon Enceladus. The observation shows that the ice-crusted moon is geologically active, and the discovery that it probably has a subsurface ocean makes it an important target for the search of life elsewhere in the solar system.
• Friday 14, January: The Huygens spacecraft separates from its orbiter and lands with a fully instrumented robotic laboratory on Titan, a moon of the planet Saturn.
• Tuesday 22, February: 00:59 GMT? (7.59 am local time?): c.400 die and 1000s are left homeless in Iran from an earthquake in the region of Takara.
• Monday 28, March: 1,313 die in an earthquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale.
• Thursday 28, July: an exceptionally heavy monsoon kills more than 700 in the state of Maharashtra in India.
• October: Nearly 87,000 die in an earthquake in the Islamabad and Kashmir region of Pakistan and India, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 30,478
• Thursday, 19 January: NASA's New Horizons spacecraft has launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida aboard a fast-moving Atlas V rocket carrying the ashes of Clyde W Tombaugh (died January 17, 1997), discoverer of Pluto and the solar system's 'third zone'. (The new Horizons spacecraft beams back photos of Pluto in 2015.)
• Wednesday, 3 May: 15:26 GMT (04:26 local time): near the island Tonga, a major quake of 7.9 on the Richter scale.
• Friday, 26 May: 22:53 GMT (Saturday 27 May 05:53 local time): 5,749 die and many thousands are injured and property destroyed in Bantul-Yogyakarta area of Java, Indonesia, in a strong quake of 6.3 on the Richter scale.
• Sunday, 15 October: earthquake (07:07:48 local time): 10 miles NNW of Kailua Kona, Hawaii, USA, measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale, with one after-shock measuring 5.8.
• Tuesday, 26 December: 12:26:21 GMT (8:26:21 pm local time): undersea quake disrupts 7 fibre-optic cables in the Bashi channel between Taiwan and the Philippines slowing communications across southeast Asia and Australia, measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale. Worldwide, internet Spam drops by 10% and viruses drop by 3% in January 2007 as a consequence. Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 29,568
• Thursday, 8 March: 11:14:31 GMT: east of the South Sandwich Islands, a quake measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale.
• Sunday, 25 March: 00:40:02 GMT: about 115 km (75 miles) south of Isangel, Tanna, Vanuatu in the South Pacific, a quake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale.
• Sunday, 25 March: 00.42 GMT: one dead and about 150 injured in a quake near the west coast of Honshu, Japan, measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale, followed by aftershocks.
• Sunday, 25 March: 01:08:19 GMT (12:08:19 pm local time): about 135 km (85 miles) south of Isangel, Tanna, Vanuatu in the South Pacific, a quake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale.
August: Hurricane Dean wipes out 99% of Dominica's banana crop, putting further pressure on the island's struggling main industry.
• Wednesday, 15 August: 6:40 p.m. local time, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale in Peru, where many Roman Catholics were in churches celebrating the Assumption of Mary, killing more than 510 and injuring more than 1500.
• Monday, 1 October: the Antarctic sea ice reaches its all-time maximum as, at the same time, the Arctic sea ice reaches its minimum.
Sea-ice max and min.
• Wednesday, 14 November: an earthquake of 7.7 on the Richter scale strikes Chile killing two, causing much damage, and halting production at some of the world's largest copper mines. Aftershocks continue for days.
• Thursday, 15 November: the cyclone Sidr causes the death of more than 3,000 people in Bangladesh, with many thousands missing (including a number of fishermen), and affecting some 2.74 million people, with winds of 250kph (155mph) and a storm surge as high as 6 meters (20 feet) along the low lying coast.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 29,685
• Saturday, 3 May: the devastating cyclone Nargis destroys part of Myanmar/Burma, particularly its rice-growing heartland, causing the death of up to 138,000 people but the military government, reluctant to allow foreign aid workers into the country, decides to go ahead with a May 10 political referendum, and maintains its isolationist attitude supported by China. Some foreign aid allowed in is re-labeled with the names of Myanmar's military rulers as though it is a gift from them.
Myanmar Junta
• Monday, 12 May: a series of earthquakes, one as much as 7.9 on the Richter scale, strike across Eastern and Northern Sichuan, China, with its epicentre in Wenchuan County, killing about 87,000 people, injuring more than 281,000, destroying about 80% of buildings, damaging about 400 dams, and displacing about five million people.
Many schools collapsed in the quake, killing more than 9,000 students and teachers.
(The disaster area houses China's main nuclear weapons research lab in Mianyang, and several secretive atomic sites, but no nuclear power stations. In Sichuan's Shifang city, the quake buries hundreds of people in two collapsed chemical plants, and more than 80 tons of ammonia leaks out).
• Saturday, 30 August: an earthquake of 6.1 on the Richter scale kills 36, injures hundreds, damages about 400 homes in West China's Sichuan and Yannan provinces.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for this year: 31,777
• Saturday, 3 January: an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale strikes off Indonesia's eastern coast, around 135 kilometres from Manokwari the capital of the province of West Papua, causing electricity blackouts and sending residents fleeing for high ground.
• Monday, 12 January: Durham University-led scientists use a computer model to analyse changes in Helheim Glacier, in southeast Greenland and conclude that Helheim which retreated by 7 kilometres (4 miles) over three years ending in 2005, losing 15 million tons more of ice than in 2000 at its peak (according to a February 2007 study in the journal Science) has since advanced about 4 kilometres, reversing the well publicized trend.
• Wednesday, 25 February: Shunichi Akasofu – Founding Director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) reports "It seems that global warming and the halting of the temperature rise are related to solar activity. Currently, the sun is "hibernating". The end of Sunspot Cycle 23 is already two years late: the cycle should have started in 2007, yet in January 2008 only one sunspot appeared in the sun's northern hemisphere, after that, they vanished completely (new sunspots have now begun to appear in the northern hemisphere). At the current time, it can clearly be seen there are no spots in the photosphere. Lately, solar winds are at their lowest levels in 50 years. Cycle 24 is overdue, and this is is worrisome. So, have there been other historical periods with an absence of sunspots? As a matter of fact, from 1650 to 1700 approximately, there were almost no sunspots. This time period has been named for the renown English astronomer Maunder, and is called the Maunder Minimum. "
  Global warming
ends 2020
• Monday 6 April: an earthquake strikes across central Italy at 03.42 of 6.3 on the Richter scale centring under the village of Onna near L'Aquila (northeast of Rome), lasting several minutes, which kills more than 278 persons, injuring several thousands and making more than 100,000 homeless.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 14,820
June 18: United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket roars off the launch pad at Launch Complex 41 to begin the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite missions to the moon.
• Tuesday, 12 January: Earthquake strikes Haiti at 16:53 local, with magnitude of 7.0 killing about 230,000 people, injuring an estimated 300,000 and leaving about 1,000,000 homeless. Some right-wing Christians in the United States shamefully spread the rumour that am 18th century covenant with Satan was the cause of the earthquake, thereby dishonouring the authority of God over His creation. (See: What is Heaven For?).
 Saturday, 27 February: Earthquake strikes Maule, near Concepción, Chile, at 3.34 AM local, with a magnitude of 8.8, killing about 500 people, and tsunami warnings are issued for the whole Pacific.
• Monday, 8 March, 4:32 AM: Earthquake of magnitude 6.0 at a 5 kilometre depth strikes eastern Turkey near the Karakocan town in Elazig province, killing at least 51 people.
About 230,000 dead
  Earth-warming period is now expected to end, according to some scientists.
• November: The British government warns that this winter is expected to be the coldest since 1963.
• December: Total eclipse of the moon coincides with the solstice (the first time in 372 years).
• Britain experiences its coldest Christmas since 1890.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 21,473
Earthquake statistics.
• Monday, 21 February: Earthquake hits Christchurch, New Zealand, measuring 6.3 at 23:51GMT (12:51PM local) at a depth of only 4km (2.5 miles), killing 185 people and injuring many; the second such within five months. (New Zealand, which sits between the Pacific and Indo-Australian tectonic plates, records on average more than 14,000 earthquakes a year, of which about 20 would normally top magnitude 5.0). Large portions of the Central Business District are levelled,
buildings crumbled, roads cracked and split, basic infrastructure torn apart.
Space-weather Alerts
Japan Disaster
Timeline with photos
• Friday, 11 March: A huge earthquake strikes north Japan at 5:46 GMT measuring 8.9 (the strongest in Japan since recording began) at a depth of 24km, triggering a major tsunami which struck the coast at nearly 15m high, devastating huge areas, killing more than 18,000 and displacing more than 500,000 people. Many powerful after-shocks follow.
China launches its prototype space station 10 metres long and 3 metres wide, Tiangong-1, or “Heavenly Palace”, into earth orbit, 380km high and travelling at 27,500km per hour.
• Sunday, 23 October: Earthquake hits eastern Turkey, measuring 7.2 killing at least 270 and injuring many more.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 22,288
• January, 31: The asteroid 433 Eros passes safely at a distance of 26,778,019/16,639,090 miles (0.1790 astronomical units, or 70 times the distance of our moon).
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 16,667
• February, 6, 01:12 GMT/UTC: Magnitude 8.0 earthquake strikes near the Santa Cruz islands, part of the Solomon Islands nation, killing at least five persons.
• February, 15, 03:20 GMT/UCT 09:20 local time: In Ural (Chelyabinsk) region, Russia – a meteorite explodes with the power of about 20 Hiroshima scale nuclear devices, injuring about 1200 people mainly from shattered glass. The shock wave damages about 3,000 buildings amid temperatures as low as minus 18 degrees Celsius (zero degrees Fahrenheit).
European Space Agency (ESA) launches the Swarm satellite trio to study Earth’s magnetic field. ESA launches this trio of Swarm satellites to measure and untangle earth's different magnetic fields.
Tracking changes in the magnetic field can tell researchers how the iron in earth's core moves
and provide information about Earth’s interior
Space Weather Now
• 19:24 GMT/UTC: An asteroid 2012 DA14 (discovered February 22, 2012, by La Sagra Sky Survey observatory, in the southeast of Spain, near Granada) passes earth at 27,700 km/17,200 miles, closer to earth than many TV and weather satellites and far closer than our moon, at a speed of up to 30,000kph/18,641mph. It's closeness to earth is believed to cause seismic tremours on the asteroid itself.
Asteroid Flyby live
(Asteroid 2012 DA14 has a very Earth-like orbit with a orbital period of 366.24 days, just one more day than our terrestrial year,
and it ‘steps’ inside and outside of the path of Earth twice per year, but the closeness of this pass-by has reduced its orbital period to 317 days).
Emergency Operations
• August 16: Across central New Zealand a magnitude of 6.5, strikes close to the South Island town of Seddon at 14:31 (02:31 GMT) and is followed by a 5.7 aftershock.
• September 11, 8.07 GMT/UT: A 400kg (63st) meteorite about a metre in diameter travelling at 61,000 km/h (40,000 mph) strikes the moon's surface punching a fresh crater about 40 metres wide in an ancient lava-filled basin called Mare Nubium.
• September 24: A 7.7-magnitude earthquake in a remote part of south western Pakistan (Baluchistan) kills 515 (Reuters), injuring at least 373, collapsing about 50% of the houses, and prompts a new island to rise from the sea just off the country's southern coast.
• September 28: A 6.9-magnitude earthquake strikes the same area of Pakistan, killing at least 15, and together leaving more than 100,000 people now homeless.
• October 12: at 13:11:52.40 UTC: Near Chania in Crete, Greece – A 6.4 quake strikes the region.
• October 15: near Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines (633 km/394 miles SSE of MANILA) at 00:12:37.20 UTC (8:12 AM local) a 7.1 earthquake strikes killing at least 183 people and destroying 8,600 homes in Quezon City.
Southern California
 Earthquake Center 
• October 26: near Fukushima Prefecture Coast, Japan, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake strikes 6.2 miles deep, about 231 miles east of the main Japanese island of Honshu (295 miles east northeast of Tokyo, 3:10 a.m. Saturday Tokyo time) about 290 kilometers off Fukushima.
• Friday, November 8: Typhoon Haiyan strikes the central Philippines with wind speeds of 235kph (147mph) gusting up to 275kph (170mph), with a storm surge of 6 meters (20 feet) killing more than 5,235 people and causing widespread devastation displacing about 3 million people.
• Sunday, December 15: China's first moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), separates successfully from it's parent spacecraft Chang'e-3 in the Bay of Rainbows (Sinus Iridum) on the lunar surface for its three month mission.
In South
Africa – Scientists from the University of the Witwatersrand prove that, despite predictions, tropical storms are not increasing in number and that while global warming is causing frost to be less severe, late season frost was not receding as quickly as flowering was advancing, thus debunking two significant climate change myths. Regarding data for the south-west Indian Ocean over the past 161 years, PHD student Jennifer Fitchett and Professor Stefan Grab confirm results of previous studies, which had found that there was no increase in the number of tropical cyclones and much of the perceived change in numbers was a result of improved storm detection methods.
The sun completes magnetic pole "field reversal" with its north and south poles changing places as it marks the midpoint of Solar Cycle 24 (the 1755–1766 solar cycle is traditionally numbered "1"). The north pole has changed its polarity from positive to negative and the south pole changed from negative to positive. The north pole finished the change in June 2012 and the south pole change completed in July 2013.
• January 13: Monday: A magnitude 6.4 earthquake strikes Puerto Rico at 04:01:04 UTC/GMT.
 Monday, January 20: North island New Zealand is rocked by a 6.3 magnitude quake 38km (24 miles) north-east of Masterton at 15:52 local time (02:52 UTC/GMT)
 Tuesday, 25, at 2 a.m. UK time: asteroid 2000 EM26 (270-metres/885-ft wide) is flies past Earth about 2.1 million miles distance, traveling at 27,000mph.
• Sunday night,9: Northern California is rocked by an undersea 6.9 quake 50 miles west of Eureka. No injuries or serious damage reported.
• Tuesday, 1: In Chile – A 8.2 magnitude earthquake strikes at 20.46 local off the coast 60 miles northwest of Iquique, triggering a tsunami and the evacuation of about 900,000 people.
Impact Evidence
• Friday,30: In Indonesia – A volcano erupts explosively about 08:30 UTC on the island of Sangeang Api. A subplinian eruption column rose quickly to an estimated 50-65,000 ft (15-20 km) altitude and drifted several hundred km to the east and southeast. Ash fall is reported in areas up to 30 km downwind from the volcano. The island itself is largely uninhabited although visted by farmers who cultivate some land. Evacuations were ordered within 1.5 km radius from the volcano. Seismic activity preceding the eruption, including a nearby magnitude 4.5 earthquake at 03:05 UTC, was reported felt in the nearby city of Bima (Sumbawa Island) and even on Flores. (Today's explosion was the first at Sangeang Api volcano since its eruptions during 1997-99).
3: at 4:30 p.m., In South-West China – At least 398 dead and more than 1,800 injured after thousands of homes collapse in 6.1-magnitude quake in Yunnan province at a depth of 10 kilometers (6 miles),
The European
Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) warns of the strong possibility of a major drought in 2014 from a developing El Niño in the Pacific Ocean.
• Sunday, August 24: In northern California, USA – a magnitude 6.0 earthquake strikes at 3:20 am local time at a depth of less than 7 miles, across the Napa valley injuring at least 172 people and causing extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure.
• 6: Saturday night, near Managua airport, Nicaragua – A meteorite strikes causing tremors mistaken for an earhquake.
• September 11, 12: Thursday night and midday Friday – two solar magnetic storms hit Earth's magnetic field (rated G2, on a scale G1 to G5, with G5 being the stringest).
See: List of Solar Storms
• 19, Sunday 2:27 pm (18:27 GMT/UT): The comet Siding Spring (C/2013 A1) hurtles past Mars (on its way toward our sun) at a close distance of about 88,000 miles (141,600 kilometers) and speed of 122,400 miles per hour. NASA manuevered its Mars orbiters to the far side of the planet so they would not be damaged by the comet's high-speed debris.
• 15, Saturday 02:31:40 UTC, M7.3 earthquake strikes 156km NW of Kota Ternate, Indonesia. The quake struck at 10:31 a.m. local time at a depth of 47 kilometres (29.2 miles). No Pacific-wide destructive tsunami is expected, but "hazardous tsunami waves are possible for coasts located within 300 km (186 miles) of the earthquake epicentre," according to the National Weather Service Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.
Space Weather
Prediction Center
Mars Rover Curiosity

Water has been found in Martian soil:
each cubic foot of Martian soil
contains about two pints of liquid water,
but the molecules are not freely accessible,
as they are bound to other minerals in the soil.



2015 February
• In Russia – Observation from space reveals "giant craters", and many smaller ones, that have appeared in northern Russia – sparking fears over a looming natural disaster in the Arctic. The dramatic mushrooming of the holes, is believed to be caused by methane gas eruptions in melting permafrost due to climate change. A leading Russian expert sounds an alert over safety because one new Siberian crater, surrounded by at least 20 "baby holes", is just six miles from a major gas production plant.
in 2015
• 27 Friday 13:45:05 (UTC): Magnitude 7 earthquake (552.3km deep) 131km (81mi) N of Nebe, Indonesia.
• 3 Tuesday 10:37:31(UTC): Earthquake M6.4, 50km NW of Sikabaluan, Indonesia.
  • 13 Friday: Cyclone Pam has slams into the south Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu with winds of up to 270km/h (170mph) and torrential rain, leaving "complete devastation" in its wake (according to aid agencies) leaving 24 dead and about 3,300 persons displaced.  
• 20 Friday: The northern hemisphere experiences an eclipse of the sun. The ancient Greeks believed that a solar eclipse was a sign that their gods were angry and death and destruction were on the way, and today some foolish End-time 'Christian' teachers also use it to secure attention to their forecasts.
  • 29 Sunday: 23:48:31 (UTC) Magnitude 7.5 earthquake – 55km Southeast of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea, at a depth of 40km.  
• 25 Saturday: 06:11:26 (UTC) Magnitude 7.8 earthquake, 15.0km deep – 80km, Northwest of Kathmandu, Nepal, killing more than 7,675 people in Nepal, and several in the surrounding countries, caused by the India tectonic plate moving northward at about 45mm a year in pushing under the Eurasian plate beneath the Himalayas.
is also being moved northward at about 7cm per year by its tectonic plate movement.

In the
Palestine-Israel-Jordan region, the tectonic movement of the Arabian plate continues northward at 20mm a year to build pressure against the Africa plate which could release in a serious earthqake. Sediment analysis from under the Dead Sea indicates that past earthquakes above magnitude 7 have tended to occur in this region about every 1,000-years, and the last such took place in 1033 AD/CE.
"Every day that passes without an earthquake brings us closer to a big one," says Dr. Rivka Amit, head of Israel’s Geological Survey in a telephone interview. A 2007 report (link in rightmargin) says "The most heavily populated areas of Israel, Jordan and West Bank/Gaza are vulnerable to strong earthquakes, which are inevitable in the region". (emphasis mine).
Earthquake Report
A recent
study in California based on tree-ring data suggests that the current drought, which most consider to have started in 2011, is the worst that the area has seen in 1,200 years: as the experts say "understanding past drought and precipitation variability through paleoclimate data may prove useful for adapting to climate change despite continuing uncertainties regarding regional precipitation in a warmer future." (emphasis mine).
level rise since 1993 has been estimated to be on average +2.6 mm and +2.9 mm per year ± 0.4 mm.
drought, coupled with desperate farmers drilling for water, is causing the central valley of California to sink, which is putting inflexible infrastructure, such as roads, railways, pipelines, and canals, at serious risk. (see June 4).
Experts at the European Science Foundation warn that volcanoes – especially super-volcanoes like the one at Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, which has a caldera measuring 34 by 45 miles (55 by 72 km) – pose more of a threat to Earth and the survival of humans than asteroids, earthquakes, nuclear war and global warming.
26: In India – The death toll in the heatwave sweeping India now exceeds 1,100, with temperatures nearing 50C (122F) in some areas.
30: In Japan – At 20:30 local time (11:30 GMT) a 7.8-magnitude undersea earthquake, centred 874km (543 miles) south of Tokyo, at a fairly safe depth of more than 660km.
1, c.21:30: Near the city of Jingzhou in Hubei province, on the Yangtze River, China –
A force-12 cyclone strikes the area, capsizing a ferry with 458 people on board (most were tourists aged 50 to 80). The ship began to list after heavy rain seeped into the cabins, according to the most detailed eyewitness account. A survivor says the ship went down so quickly that passengers didn’t have a chance to grab life jackets.
Thursday, in California, USA – New details of the rate at which the State is sinking are published: reportedly by up to 2 feet per year, largely as a consequence of the abnormal drought and the pumping of ground-water. The sinking is starting to destroy bridges, crack irrigation canals and twist highways across the state, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. The sinking was first reported in the 1930s and ontinued until the 1970s when a massive irrigation canal system was built to move water from wetter parts to the dry. Sinking was reported again in 2012 and has increased since.
Friday, in Malaysia – At 07:15 local time (23:15 GMT), a magnitide 6.0 earthquake strikes at a depth of 10km (32,800ft), killing eighteen persons. The epicentre is 54km (33 miles) from Mount Kinabalu, which stands at 4,095m. Locals blame tourists for the disaster, for posing naked on the mountain for photographs, urinating, and so upsetting the 'spirit of the mountain' where the ancestral spirits are thought to lodge. The tourists are later charged in court.
Monday, Mount Sinabung, on the island of Sumatra. Indonesia – Begins erupting in at least 28 pyroclastic flows – surges of hot ash and gas that rush down the side of the mountain at high speed. Before 2010 it had been dormant for 400 years. More than 3,000 people in the vicinity have had to flee their homes. But not all flee –
  Note: The
'grand solar minimum'
of global cooling, for
the next forty years,
is expected to begin
in about 2020 AD to
Maunder Minimum-like
conditions by 2050
(similar to the period
which ended the
Roman empire,
and the period
which terminated
Viking settlements
in Greenland).

In the Sindh province of Pakistan – A heatwave causes the death of more than 1,000 people over this last week. Nearly 1,700 people died in a heatwave in neighbouring India last month.
The last minute of this day receives a one-second addition (a leap second) to adjust to the earth's rotation, which will mean that the last minute of June will have 61 seconds; so when 23:59:59 usually becomes 00:00:00, this leap second will now ensure the time becomes 23:59:60.
1: At Heathrow airport in the UK – The UK records the hottest July day on record, with temperatures hitting 36.7C (98F).
8: In Taiwan – The powerful typhoon Soudelor batters Taiwan with strong winds of more than 230km/h (142mph) and heavy rain, leaves at least four people dead.
17: In California – A magnitude 4.0 quake just before 7am Pacific Time (2.49pm BST) in Piedmont, near the city of San Francisco. It appears to have occurred along the Hayward fault, around 20 miles east of the infamous San Andreas fault that US Geological Survey experts have long said is at risk of producing 'the big one'.
29: In the Caribbean – Tropical storm Erika causes serious damage in Dominican Republic and the loss of at least 20 lives.
Several interplanetary spacecraft have provided abundant evidence of water on Mars, dating back to NASA’s Mariner 9 mission during the 1970s. The robotic rover Opportunity found initial signs in 2004 that rocks at one of the Martian craters were exposed to water at one point of time: it may have been a salty lake or an ocean. Findings from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provides the strongest evidence that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.
1: In the East Atlantic – A hurricane with winds of up to 135km/h (85mph) has hit the island nation of Cape Verde, off the coast of West Africa.
10: In Japan – Heavy rainfall caused by Typhoon Etau bursts the banks of Kinugawa River causing widespread flooding and landslides in the city of Joso, north of Tokyo.
14: California Governor Jerry Brown declares a state of emergency for Lake, Napa, Amador and Calaveras counties, where fires burn an estimated 65,000 acres (26,305 hectares) of land and destroyed at least 86 homes and 51 outbuildings. The so-called Valley fire burned largely unchecked after incinerating hundreds of homes and other buildings throughout rural communities north of California's Napa Valley, leaving at least one person dead and sending tens of thousands fleeing from the flames.
16, 06.45pm (22:54:33, UTC): 46km West of Illapel (north of Valparaiso), Chile – An 8.3 magnitude earthquake strikes of the coast killing eight, and generating a tsunami. The port city of Coquimbo is hit by waves of up to 15ft (4.5 metres). It is the result of a thrust faulting on the interface between the Nazca and South America tectonic plates in Central Chile. At the latitude of this event, the Nazca plate is moving towards the east-northeast at a velocity of 74 mm/yr with respect to South America, and begins its subduction beneath the continent at the Peru-Chile Trench, 85 km to the west. The Nazca tectonic plate which lies off the coast plunges beneath the South American plate, causing major seismic activity.
Indonesia – on at least 38 days in September and October, Indonesia's fires release more carbon dioxide than the entire United States economy. The fires have been a public health nightmare, forcing widespread evacuations, killing at least 19, and triggering respiratory illnesses in more than half a million people. Small farmers are legally allowed to burn up to 2 hectares, although enforcement is poor, and experts say a great many people set fires illegally to grab land. This year's fire season has been especially bad because there's been a lack of rain to quench those peatland fires because of the gigantic El Niño brewing in the Pacific Ocean, which has led to an unusually long dry spell in Indonesia.
In California, USA – An underground storage field of SoCal Gas in Porter Ranch, on the outskirts of Los Angeles begins leaking gas from Aliso Canyon. The company hopes to fix it by late March 2016. More than 10,000 people are eventually moved from their homes and many reporting nausea and headaches, with a further 7,000 expected, according to SoCal Gas. A broken injection-well pipe about 500 ft (152.4m) below the surface is thought to be to blame. Tim O'Connor, a lawyer with the Environmental Defense Fund, has called it "an environmental and public health catastrophe. ...In terms of timelines this is going to surpass the gulf oil problem by a mile." He said –
It's the same amount of pollution as 4.5 million cars put out every day..
17: in the Philippines – Typhoon Koppu makes landfall near the town of Casiguran on the island of Luzon, bringing winds of close to 200km/h (124mph). Two persons are reported to have died and more than 16,000 displaced as a result.
In South West Mexico – Hurricane Patricia, one of the most powerful tropical cyclones ever measured in the Western Hemisphere, hits Mexico’s Pacific coast. The strong winds travelled at the speed of 165 mph (266 kmph) and the heavy rains destroyed homes and caused flooding and mudslides.
In Afghanistan – A magnitude 7.5 earthquake strikes 48km (30mi) SSW of Jarm, Badakhshan, Afghanistan and 51 miles (82 kilometres) southeast of Feyzabad, at a depth of about 210km in the Hindi Kush mountains near the border with Pakistan and south of Tajikistan. The quake was followed by three aftershocks measuring 4.8, 4.4 and 4.7 on the Richter scale. Over 260 people have been killed and thousands injured across the region. In India patients shifted outdoors at the government medical college hospital in Jammu.
In the Afghan city of Taloqan, 12 schoolgirls were reported to have been killed in a stampede while trying to escape from shaking buildings. Hundreds more may have been injured but most of those affected live some way from communications so precise figures will take some time to emerge.
A four hundred-metre-wide asteroid, 2015 TB145, passes just 302,500 miles (486,800 kilometres) or 1.3 lunar distances away from Earth. The high orbital inclination and eccentricity suggest 2015 TB145 may be an extinct comet that has shed its volatiles after numerous passes around the Sun.
There is no likelihood of a collision with earth for another 100-years.
In South Africa – The sugar-growing province of KwaZulu-Natal is the driest it has been in over a century, underscoring the scale of a drought scorching Africa's most advanced economy, due to an El Nino weather pattern in the Pacific, and threatens South Africa's diverse farm sector including its key maize crop, which may fuel food prices and inflation at a time when its central bank is in a tightening cycle. Its 2014-2015 season was the driest since at least 1900 (according to the SA Weather Service), and the third-driest for South Africa as a whole since the early 1930s when the country was hit by a historic drought in the midst of the Great Depression.
3, Thursday: In Sicily, Italy – Mount Etna begins erupting, pushing out ash and lava, choking the Mediterranean sky above Sicily. The display of volcanic lightning inside giant smoke and ash cloud over Europe’s tallest active volcano is the Voragine crater’s first eruption in two years
2015 Paris Climate Agreement reached by 200 nations committing to limit the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity to the same levels that trees, soil and oceans can absorb naturally, beginning at some point between 2050 and 2100, and then to review each country's contribution to cutting emissions every five years so that they scale up to the challenge,
is apparently completely unaware of the long-term history of climate change and the coming cooling period.
  See: Ineson, S. et al. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum. Nat. Commun. 6:7535 doi: 10.1038/ncomms8535 (2015)
(about 02h00 UTC) Monday: Very early morning, the earth passes through the orbital debris of asteroid 3200 Phaëthon producing the annual Geminid meteor-shower (above left from Orion).
There is no need to fear – for the rainbow means Never Again (Genesis 9:13).
In the UK – A research team writes in the Royal Astronomical Society journal, Astronomy and Geophysics that large comets (known as centaurs) are a potential threat to earth. These balls of ice and dust, typically 50-100 kilometres (31-62 miles) wide, have unstable, elliptical orbits that start way beyond Neptune, the most distant planet from the Sun. Their orbits cross those of the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, whose gravity fields occasionally deflect a comet towards Earth – once about every 40,000-100,000 years.
Probable Cause
of Noah's Flood
A large asteroid 163899 (also known as 2003 SD220) comes closest to Earth at a safe distance of about 11 million km. Preliminary estimates are a size of 0.7 miles to 1.5 miles (1.1 km to 2.5 km), and the asteroid is thought to have a very slow rotation of about one week.
A full moon appears on Christmas day, for the first time in decades. The last time there was a full moon on 25 December was 1977, and there won't be another one until 2034.

Watch the time-lapse from 1984 to 2016 – of cities grow and the glaciers shrink in a satellite photographic time-lapse. (May take time to load)
4: In India – An earthquake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale strikes the northeastern Indian state of Manipur in the early hours. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quake originated 34 miles (55 km) underground in the Tamenglong district, 18 miles (29 km) from state capital Imphal. Tremors are felt in adjoining Myanmar, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and parts of eastern India. Reports claim that at least four people have been killed, and hundreds more injured.
Africa annouces that it has endured its driest summer in more than 110-years.
In addition
the sun is moving
toward its minimum
in the 11-year solar cycle,
and spots on the sun’s
surface have been few
and far between.
In the United States – The East Coast is battered by a blizzard, known as Storm Jonas. A state of emergency is declared across a vast swathe of the eastern seaboard, with individual states in near-shutdown after thousands of flights are cancelled, schools and government offices closed and sports and entertainment events called off.
1:30 AM
local time: In Alaska – A 7.1-magnitude earthquake strikes 52 miles east of Old Iliamna near the coast at a depth of 79.4 miles (127.8 km). At least 10,000 people were reportedly without electricity in the Anchorage area on Sunday morning.
Monday 25,
05:22 local time (04:22 GMT): Near Spain – A 6.3-magnitude undersea earthquake strikes the region between Morocco and Spain at a depth of 10km – damaging hundreds of properties and closing schools. It struck 39 miles north of the Moroccan city of Al Hoceima and 102 miles east-southeast of Gibraltar. About 15 people are treated for minor injuries.
Saturday 6, 03:57 (Friday 19:57:27 GMT): In Tainan, south Taiwan – A magnitude 6.4 earthquake at a depth of only 10 km (6 miles) kills at least 38 people, 120 missing, and more than 400 injured.
1: NASA astronaut and Expedition 46 Commander Scott Kelly and his Russian counterpart Mikhail Kornienko return to Earth after a historic 340-day mission aboard the International Space Station.
They land in Kazakhstan at 11:26 p.m. EST (10:26 a.m. March 2 Kazakhstan time).
After 340-days in weightlessness,
which is bad for muscles,
breathing and walking becomes difficult under gravity.
particular research project examined fluid shifts that occur when bodily fluids move into the upper body during weightlessness. These shifts may be associated with visual changes and a possible increase in intracranial pressure, which are significant challenges that must be understood before humans expand exploration beyond Earth’s orbit. The study uses the Russian Chibis device to draw fluids back into the legs while the subject’s eyes are measured to track any changes. NASA and Roscosmos are already looking at continuing the Fluid Shifts investigation with future space station crews.
2: 12.49pm GMT: 600km (370 miles) off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia – A magnitude 7.8 earthquake at a depth of 10 km. The tsunami threat has led to evacuations in Sumatra with residents urged to make their way to higher ground.
The asteroid 2013 TX68 – whose precise trajectory was unknown – passed Earth at 13:42 UTC (8:42 ET) at some 10 times the moon’s distance.
The new moon, one day before the moon reaches lunar perigee – the moon’s closest point to Earth in its orbit, on the second anniversary of the tragic loss of Malaysian passenger airliner H370. This new moon counts as a super-moon due to its apparent size. It won’t be visible in everyone's sky, but it’ll line up with the sun to create a larger-than-average effect on Earth’s ocean tides.
This new super-moon swings right in front of our sun, so if you’re at the right place on Earth (see animation to the right), you might be able to view the new moon silhouette in front of the sun (but remember to use proper eye protection).
   life on earth is not threatened
, although damage may occur, for there is a rainbow around the Throne of God, to remind us of His promise after the global tsunami of Noah, that never again would a wipe-out of life on earth be allowed to happen.
(Genesis 9:11-13; and Revelation 4:3)
An asteroid (2016 EF195), of between 16 to 49 meters diameter, safely passes earth, at about the distance of our geostationary satellites, travelling at 22,369 miles per hour (36,000 km/h).
Across England – A meteor flashes northward across the sky over Hampshire, Stafford and the east coast of England, at 03:16 local time (GMT/UT).
• A pair of comets, showing very similar orbits, are also approaching Earth, and, while both will pass at a safe distance, both will have record-breaking close flybys. Observers are reporting that one of the comets has become so bright, it’s already visible using binoculars. The two are Comet 252P/LINEAR and Comet P/2016 BA14.
April 8:
Melting ice sheets, especially in Greenland, are changing the distribution of weight on Earth. And that has caused both the North Pole and the wobble, which is called polar motion, to change course, according to a study published in the journal Science Advances. Scientists and navigators have been accurately measuring the true pole and polar motion since 1899, and for almost the entire 20th century they migrated a bit toward Canada. But that has now changed with this century,
and it’s moving toward England, according to a study by lead author Surendra Adhikari at Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Lab.
In Ecuador, South America – A 7.8 earthquake strikes. As the national death toll climbs past 600, Ecuador's government has estimated that the overall cost of the damage will rise to between $2bn and $3bn.
Asteroid 2016 HO3 is spotted by the Pan-STARRS 1 asteroid survey telescope on Haleakala, Hawaii, as it loops around our planet, but never ventures very far away as we both go around the sun, so it may be referred to as a quasi-satellite of Earth.
May 6-7:
Eta Aquarids meteor shower. Named after the brightest star of the constellation, Eta Aquarids formed from Comet Halley’s debris. A new Moon on May 6 will help observers experience the event. This meteor shower, which is usually active between April 19 and May 28 every year, will peak on May 6-7 this year.
NASA's Kepler space telescope has now discovered 1,284 new exo-planets, including nine rocky worlds that might be capable of supporting life as we know it, astronomers announce. This is the largest haul of alien planets ever unveiled at one time.
The total exo-planet tally now stands at about 3,200, and Kepler has found 2,235 of them.
The planet Mars will make its closest approach to Earth.
June 3:
The ringed-planet Saturn appears bright and illuminated by the sun as it reaches its orbital opposition to our sun.
In New Zealand – Geophysicist Ian Hamling says that since 1950, enough magma (molten lava) to fill 80,000 Olympic-size swimming pools has squeezed up beneath the surface near the coastal town of Matata, about 200km (120 miles) south-east of Auckland. The discovery explains a spate of earthquakes between 2004 and 20011.
In Iceland – Hekla, a volcano in South Iceland that has not erupted in 16 years, and experts in the field have warned that high pressure readings could point to an imminent explosion. From 1970 to 2000 Hekla erupted approximately once every 10 years, but has remained dormant ever since. University of Iceland Geophysics Professor Páll Einarsson has told Icelandic news agency that people should not visit the volcano, which is now a popular tourist destination, due to an increased risk of eruption.
In Beijing, China – Excessive pumping of groundwater is causing the geology under the city to collapse, according to a new study using satellite imagery that reveals parts of Beijing – particularly its central business district – are subsiding each year by as much as 11 centimetres, or more than four inches. The study on Beijing’s subsidence has been published in the peer-reviewed journal Remote Sensing and is based on InSAR, a type of radar that monitors land elevation changes. It was written by a team of seven researchers, including three who explained their findings to the Guardian: Chinese academics Chen Mi [Capital Normal University, China] and Li Zhenhong [Newcastle University, UK], and Spanish engineer Roberto Tomas [University of Alicante, Spain].
Beijing Sinking
July 4:
The Juno spacecraft, which has arrived at Jupiter, is just one of many groundbreaking NASA missions to study the far reaches of our solar system. Other spacecraft have been deployed to study Pluto, Saturn, and even Ceres – a dwarf planet in the inner solar system. The information being gathered by these missions is completely changing the way we think about the composition of our solar system. Juno slipped into a highly elliptical, 53-Earth-day-long orbit around Jupiter when it arrived at the giant planet. The probe was supposed to perform an engine burn in October to reduce its orbital period to 14 days, but an issue with two helium valves postponed that maneuver. The engine burn has since been canceled, meaning Juno will stay where it is through to the end of its mission.
Juno has conducted four close flybys since arriving at Jupiter – on August 27, October 19, and December 11, 2016, and February 2, 2017. These encounters have already revealed that Jupiter's magnetic field and auroras are more powerful than scientists had thought, and that the bands and belts visible at the planet's cloud tops actually extend deep into the interior.
America's NASA reports that the 6-month period from January to June this year was our planet’s warmest half-year in the modern temperature record since records began in 1880.
SpaceX's unmanned Dragon cargo ship arrives at the International Space Station, carrying nearly 5,000 pounds (2,200 kilograms) of gear and supplies for the astronauts living in orbit. US space agency astronauts Jeff Williams and Kate Rubins reach out and grab the spacecraft, using the space station's 57.7-foot (17.5 meter) long robotic arm known as the Canadarm2, at 6:56 am (1056 GMT). "We have confirmed capture," a NASA commentator says. The key piece of equipment on board is the first of two international docking adaptors, which will allow commercial crew spacecraft to latch onto the research outpost in the coming years.
China – Heavy rains in northern China cause extensive flooding, overwhelming levees and killing at least 72 people in one province, with many others missing. The death toll in Xingtai, an industrial city in Hebei Province, rises sharply on Saturday 23, days after a wall of water descended on one village in the middle of the night with little or no warning. In addition to the 25 people in Xingtai who were confirmed dead, 13 were missing
The sun emits three mid-level solar flares, the strongest peaking at 1:16 a.m. EDT on July 23. The sun is currently in a period of low activity, moving toward what’s called solar minimum when there are few to no solar eruptions. These flares were the first significant events observed since April. They are categorized as mid-strength flares, substantially less intense than the most powerful solar flares.
At "0440 UTC" (equivalent of 12:40am on the US East Coast, or 9:40pm on the West Coast) parts of California, Nevada, and Utah witness an unusual space show as a giant fireball streaks across the Las Vegas sky. It is thought by some to be the remains of a large Chinese rocket burning up as it falls back into the atmosphere. This is the first time that China's space program has launched this particular type of rocket. China is planning to use the rocket on future missions to carry astronauts to the space station they plan to launch later this year.
$1.1 billion Juno spacecraft successfully slips into orbit around Jupiter on a 20-month mission to learn more about how the gas giant formed, and to probe the origins of the solar system. Last year, data from the Hubble Space Telescope confirmed that Jupiter's largest moon, Ganymede, has an underground ocean that contains more water than Earth's, broadening the hunt for places in the solar system where life might be able to exist.
Australia is
a continent on the move. The land down under is currently moving north by about 7 centimeters (2.75 inches) annually due to normal tectonic movements, and, as a result, the nation’s local coordinates are out of sync with those from the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) by over 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) – which, incidentally, is the average height of a kangaroo. Australia is currently the fastest-moving continental tectonic plate in the world. That is why, the country’s local coordinate system had to be updated four times in the last 50 years in order to align it with global coordinates – which, since they are calculated based on global lines of latitudes and longitude, do not shift even when the continents do. The new update in 2017 will “overcorrect” the datum by about 20 centimeters (7.8 inches) as it would be based on projections of where the country would be in 2020.
12-13: The Perseid meteor shower becomes visible (named after the constellation Perseus). It is made from debris of the comet Swift-Tuttle. One of the brighter meteor showers of the year, the Perseids will occur under very favorable conditions of dark skies after the moon sets around the midnight.
24: Wednesday at 3:36 AM – In Central Italy near the town of Accumoli, 4km north east of Norcia and 40km north of Amatrice, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake strikes, killing at least 281 people and 365 injured, more than 360 missing, and destroying homes, devastating parts of Lazio, Umbria and Le Marche. It is felt as far away as Rome. On Friday morning, the Prime Minister of Italy, Matteo Renzi, declares a state of emergency in the area, as a 4.7-magnitude aftershock strikes near the worst-hit town of Amatrice, and authorises an initial €50m in crisis funding to start the rebuilding process and offers to cancel taxes for those affected. At least 388 people remain in hospital, with around 40 of them in a critical condition.
27: The two brightest planets, Venus and Jupiter, have a close encounter in our evening sky, coming within 0.06 degrees of each other viewed from earth. Observers can experience this rare celestial event after the sunset in the western sky.
The Juno probe captures images of Jupiter's north pole skimming 2,600 miles (4,200 kilometers) above Jupiter's cloud tops during the first of three dozen close flybys of the solar system's largest planet. "It's bluer in color up there than other parts of the planet, and there are a lot of storms," Bolton added. Juno principal investigator Scott Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, said – "There is no sign of the latitudinal bands or zone and belts that we are used to; this image is hardly recognizable as Jupiter. We're seeing signs that the clouds have shadows, possibly indicating that the clouds are at a higher altitude than other features." Saturn has a huge hexagonal storm swirling at its north pole. But Jupiter lacks such a vortex, the new photos show.
A team at
the Marseille Astrophysics Laboratory (CNRS) believes planet Proxima b (orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest star to our sun, and estimated to be 1.3 times the mass of Earth, and 4.22 light years away) has seas and could even be an “ocean planet” with water covering its whole surface. Current spacecrafts would take around 70,000 years to reach Proxima b.
1: Annual solar eclipse – also known as the “Ring of Fire” – is very similar to a total eclipse. In this event, as the moon is farther away from Earth, it fails to cover the entire sun. This will be visible from certain parts of Africa, including Madagascar and Congo.
16: A penumbral lunar eclipse. This eclipse happens when the moon passes through the outermost edges of Earth’s shadow, known as 'penumbra'. Although the moon will look darker, it won’t take the usual reddish hue like it does during a total lunar eclipse (the 'blood moon' effect which Pastor John Hagee exploited as the 'sign of the End', in violation of its Biblical context, which says it will be a consequence of the sun being darkened). This second penumbral eclipse of the year will be experienced by Eastern Europe, Eastern Africa, Asia and Australia.
In China's Guizhou region the world's largest radio telescope begins searching for signs of extra-terrestrial life in outer space. The £138m dish, measures 500 metres in diameter and took five years. Hundreds of astronomers and enthusiasts watched the launch of the Five-Hundred-Metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). Qian Lei, a researcher with the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said –
"The ultimate goal of FAST is to discover the laws of the development of the universe.
In theory, if there is civilisation in outer space, the radio signal it sends
will be similar to the signal we can receive when a pulsar (spinning neutron star) is approaching us."
Hundreds of villagers who lived near the site have been forced to relocate and will be compensated with cash or housing. State media reports that the relocation budget was £210m – more than the cost of the dish itself. The project is part of China's multi-billion pound space programme, which includes plans for a permanent orbiting space station and a manned mission to the moon.
Space Program
The European Space Agency's Rosetta (beginning January 2014, when Rosetta "woke up" after hibernating for nearly three years to conserve energy on her 10-year journey from Earth to Comet 67P, a six-billion-kilometre journey to the comet) now makes a planned crash-landing on the surface of Comet 67P, after 12-years of space exploration, on which robotic Philae has also ended its mission..
the Caribbean – Major Hurricane Matthew strengthens to a rare Category 5 late Friday, before weakening to a strong Category 4 hurricane overnight. Matthew is the first Category 5 hurricane since Hurricane Felix in 2007 (Attaining Category 5 status in the Caribbean Sea, Felix barreled into Nicaragua and Honduras in early September, claiming at least 130 lives and destroying thousands of homes and buildings along the coast). According to Colorado State University tropical scientist Dr. Phil Klotzbach, Matthew became the lowest latitude Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic on record (beating the old record set by Ivan in 2004).
3: A paper entitled "Young People's Burden: Requirement of Negative CO2 Emissions" by James Hansen, a former senior NASA climate scientist, and 11 other experts, claims the global temperature has just reached a level similar to that in the interglacial (Eemian) period, 115,000 to 130,000 years ago, when Earth’s sea level was several meters higher than today. The paper focusses on carbon emissions stating that research shows that the rapid rise of global temperature – beginning in around 1975 – continues at a rate of about 0.18°C per decade. The growth rate of climate change, due to human-caused greenhouse gases, increased over 20 percent in the past decade.
Unfortunately, the paper ignores the cyclic nature of long-term fluctuations in solar radiation.
5: Nearly 2 million people along the coast of Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas are urged to evacuate their homes, in a mass exodus ahead of a major storm packing power the U.S. hasn't seen in more than a decade. At 5 p.m. EDT, Matthew is centered about 400 miles (640 kilometers) southeast of West Palm Beach and moving northwest, according to the National Hurricane Center. Hurricane-force winds extend 45 miles (72 kilometers) from the center. In South Carolina, Gov. Nikki Haley reversed the lanes of Interstate 26 so that all lanes of traffic were headed west and out of Charleston. It is the first time the lanes had been reversed. Plans to reverse the lanes were put in place after hour-long traffic jams during Hurricane Floyd in 1999.
In Southern California
– A swarm of nearly 200 small earthquakes shakes Southern California in area of the shallow, inland Salton Sea. At the same time, scientists publish their recent discovery of a potentially significant fault that lies along the eastern edge of the Salton Sea, to the west of the San Andreas fault, in the earthquake-prone region that includes the greater Los Angeles area.
The new fault, dubbed the Salton Trough Fault, is not one of those that moved during the swarm.
NASA releases pictures taken by its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, which has been mapping the Moon since 2009, indicating the effect that asteroids and comets crashing into Earth's only natural satellite create, on average, 180 new craters at least 10 metres (33 feet) in diameter every year.
Earth is also constantly pelted by asteroids and meteors, but is protected by its thick atmosphere. More than 100 tonnes of dust and sand-sized particles rain down on this planet every day. The Moon's ultra-thin atmosphere only contains about 100 molecules of gases and elements per cubic centimetre (0.6 cubic inch).
Whereas earth's atmosphere at sea level, by contrast, is packed with about 100 billion billion molecules per cubic centimetre.
The planet Uranus will reaches its opposition point to our sun and closest to Earth. It now reaches its prime viewing position and is highly illuminated by the sun.
China’s Shenzhou 11 manned spacecraft is successfully docked with China’s Tiangong 2 space laboratory and its two astronauts (Jing Haipeng and Chen Dong) enter. China’s is the third country after the United States and Russia to complete space rendezvous and docking procedures. In a manned space mission in 2013, three Chinese astronauts spent 15 days in orbit and docked with a space laboratory, the Tiangong 1.
European Space Agency (ESA) succeeds in placing a methane-sniffing spacecraft in orbit around Mars. The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), is part of the European-Russian ExoMars 2016 mission.
Schiaparelli Mars lander enters Mars' outer atmosphere at 1442 GMT on Wednesday, as scheduled, for what should have been a six-minute dash to the surface, but contact is lost.
Schiaparelli has on-board batteries designed to last at least four sols (a sol is a Mars day of about 24 hours and 40 minutes), and at up to 10 or 12 sols.
Space Agency
Mars lander
Orionids meteor shower. Created by the debris from Comet Halley, the Orionid meteor shower is active every year in October, and this year it peaks on the evening of October 21. During the shower, observers see up to 20 meteors every hour.
Wednesday, 26:
In central Italy – At 17:10:37 UTC, a 5.4 magnitude earthquake, at a depth of 10.0 km, hits near Visso, about 100 miles northeast of Rome.
Tremors are felt from Perugia to Rome, and also in the town of L'Aquila.
It comes just two months after an earthquake in the same area killed nearly 300 people and destroyed hilltop villages.
An hour later a 6.1 magnitude earthquake strikes central Italy.
The first quake strikes at 7.10pm local and could be felt across central Italy and as far south as Caserta. The second, stronger quake, strikes at 9.18pm local and could be felt strongly in Rome. Both are regarded by seismologists as aftershocks to the earthquake on 24 August that struck a broad swath of central Italy, demolishing buildings in three towns and their hamlets.
Two earthquakes;
Sunday 30:
Another earthquake strikes central Italy, this time a 6.6 magnitude, but more than 100km deep, so less damage was done. Dozens of historic buildings have been destroyed or seriously damaged, with around a dozen people reported to be injured. The epicentre of the quake was about 40 miles (68km) south-west of Perugia and close to the town of Norcia, which was already reeling from a series of large quakes. Many of the town’s residents had been evacuated after quakes on Wednesday, so they avoided the worst of the damage on Sunday morning.
Third earthquake;
3, Thursday: In central Italy – A magnitude 5 earthquake 10km deep strikes damaging dozens of buildings and monuments. About 10km outside Rome is the Colli Albani dormant volcano and some fear that it may be affected by the earthquakes and become active. Studies indicate that volcanic chambers located below the towns of Ariccia, Castel, Gandolfo and Albano are slowly filling up with magma and pushing the ground up by 2-3mm per year. In general an earthquake would not cause a volcanic eruption, but if the volcano has already become active an earthquake could trigger its eruption.
Fourth earthquake
in nine days.
Just after midnight local time, near Christchurch, New Zealand – A magnitide 7.8 earthquake strikes, 57 miles north-northeast of the city.
On Monday at 6:15 a.m. EST, the moon is at its closest point to the Earth in 2016: a distance of 221,524 miles (356,508 kilometers) away. This distance, which is measured from the center of the Earth to the center of the moon, is within 85 miles (137 km) of the moon's closest possible approach to Earth. Two hours and 37 minutes after this (the moon's closest point to Earth), the orb will officially turn full.This month's full moon is the closest since January 26, 1948.
Bringing the moon
closer to Earth
than it has been
January 26, 1948
The near coincidence of this month's full moon with its perigee will result in a dramatically large range of high and low ocean tides: an unusually lower-than-normal low tide, followed about 6 hours later by an unusually higher-than-normal high tide.
In the latter case, any coastal storm at sea around this time will certainly aggravate coastal flooding problems.
About 2,20am local, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake strikes New Zealand’s South Island.
About 7am local, a second earthquake, 5.8 magnitude, strikes New Zealand. Huge damage caused to property and two deaths reported.
4: In New Zealand – A magnitude 5.5 earthquake strikes South and lower North Island at a depth of 12km centred 10km East of Seddon.
The Solomon Islands is hit by a 7.7 magnitude earthquake with a warning of a possible tsunami. Among the countries most at risk are the Solomon Islands themselves, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea and several other low-lying Pacific islands.
NASA scientists gear up for the launch of the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), a dedicated fleet of storm-watching microsatellites that will track hurricane evolution over Earth's oceans in future.
Geminids meteor shower. The biggest and the brightest shower of the year, the Geminids will take place amidst the unfavourable full moon. With the possibility of viewing 120 meteors per hour at its peak, the meteor shower derives its name from the constellation Gemini because they seem to come from that direction. Unlike the usual meteor showers, the Geminids are associated with an asteroid, the 3200 Phaethon — which takes about 1.4 years to complete its revolution around the sun.
  17: Of the east coast of Papua New Guinea – a magnitude 7.9 earthquake strikes at a depth of 61 miles with its epicentre 29 miles to the east of Taron on Saturday, the US Geological Survey (USGS) said. Strong aftershocks hit the area of the original quake within the space of an hour, with the USGS reporting 5.5 and 6.3 magnitude quakes.
The Landsat 7 satellite acquires this image of snow in Morocco, North Africa, showing an area near the border of Morocco and Algeria, south of the city of Bouarfa and southwest of Ain Sefra.
The European Space
Agency publishes the results of its magnetic field survey of planet earth in the journal Nature Geoscience, resulting from its 2013 launch of its Swarm trio of satellites, indicating a jet stream in the liquid iron core of earth.


magnetic field is constantly changing and shifting.

Other sources of magnetism come from minerals in Earth’s mantle and crust,
while the ionosphere, magnetosphere and oceans also play a role.

Together, they form the magnetic field which helps protect earth from cosmic radiation and charged particles that stream towards Earth in solar winds.
was the hottest year since records began 167 years ago, as planet Earth experienced warmer land, warmer seas, warmer air and melting ice as never before, according to new research. Scientists at the Met Office and East Anglia University found 2016 was 1.1 degrees Celsius warmer than the average between 1850 and 1900.

January 18: Central Italy is rocked by three earthquakes measuring 5.3 on the Richter scale, and requiring the evacuation of Rome's metro system and some schools.
• In the town of Farindola on the Gran Sasso mountain in the central Abruzzo region an avalanche of snow, believed to have been triggered by an earthquake, hits the remote, three-storey Hotel Rigopianoa spa hotel. Up to 30 people are feared dead.
Tuesday 24: A newfound asteroid about the size of a bus zips safely by Earth late Tuesday, just days after its discovery.
The asteroid 2017 BX buzzed by Earth at a range of 162,252 miles (261,119 kilometers) – about 30 percent closer than the distance between the Earth and the moon – at 11:54 p.m. EST (0454 Tuesday GMT), according to online Slooh observatory, which tracked the object late Tuesday in a live webcast at
The asteroid was first discovered on Friday (January 20, 2017).
Voyager I (launched in September 1977) has broken through the heliopause boundary between the solar wind and the interstellar medium, the spacecraft will be able to obtain measurements of interstellar fields, particles and waves that have not been interfered with by the solar wind.

Voyager is making direct contact with plasma expelled by other stars.

Voyager is powered by an RTG (Radioisotope Thermal Generator) – a nuclear battery. It becomes a little weaker each day.

Sometime after 2020, maybe as late as 2025, the power will become too little to transmit the 23 watt signal towards Earth and we will lose track of Voyager I. It will continue to travel through the Milky Way – now fully independent of our sun, it may outlast our own solar system.
Voyager 1
has left our
Solar System
11: (1) a partial eclipse of the moon (beginning at 10.34pm UK time on Friday 10, to reach its maximum at 12.43am early Saturday morning, to end at 2.53am);
(2) a comet 45P/Honda–Mrkos–Pajdušáková (with a 200 year orbi) will pass close to earth; and
(3) the moon will become full at 2.32am.
Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann is seen breaking apart via the Slooh telescopes in Chile.
Wednesday 15:
India launches a record 104 satellites from a single rocket as its famously frugal space agency looks to zoom ahead in the commercial space race. The rocket is launched from the southern spaceport of Sriharikota. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle will be carrying a 714 kilogram main satellite for earth observation, and 103 smaller "nano satellites" which would weigh a combined 664 kilograms. Nearly all of the nano satellites are from other countries, including –
Israel, Kazakhstan, The Netherlands, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates and 96 from United States.
Russia launched 39 satellites in a single mission in June 2014.
An exoplanet is a celestial body that orbits a star other than our sun. Astronomers now identify more than 3,500 such planets in 2,687 planetary systems and 602 multiple planetary systems. (In July 2015, NASAs Kepler space telescope identified the famous exoplanet Kepler-452b, which is described as Earth's cousin because of its close similarities to our planet).
February 22:
In Washington, DC – NASA announces that its Spitzer Space Telescope has observed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star.
Three of these planets are firmly located in what’s called the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water – key to life as we know it.
The discovery sets a new record for greatest number of known planets in a star’s habitable zone. After all, our solar system has only two planets in the habitable zone: Earth and Mars.
This exoplanet system – called TRAPPIST-1 – has three. Only about 40 light-years (235 trillion miles) from Earth, in the direction to our constellation Aquarius, TRAPPIST-1 – classified as an ultra-cool dwarf.
It’s so cool that liquid water could survive on planets orbiting very close to it, closer than is possible on planets in our solar system.
All seven of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary orbits are closer to their host star than Mercury is to our sun in our solar system.
The newly discovered exoplanets orbiting this nearby star are likely to be bathed in high-energy ultraviolet radiation, which is not good for human life.
According to a NASA statement –
The planets also are very close to each other. If a person was standing on one of the planet’s surface, they could gaze up and potentially see geological features or clouds of neighboring worlds, which would sometimes appear larger than the moon in Earth’s sky.
Sunday 26:
A new moon on February 26, 2017 ushers in the first of two solar eclipses in this year. It will be an annular eclipse, often called a ring of fire eclipse. During an annular eclipse, the outer edge of the sun appears as a thin ring (annulus) of sunshine around the moon. An annular eclipse is, essentially, a special type of partial eclipse. At no time will the sky grow dark, and you’ll need continual eye protection to watch it, assuming you’re in a place on Earth where the eclipse is visible.
This eclipse is visible from Earth’s Southern Hemisphere, mainly over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
The times for the solar eclipse in local time for Coyhaique, Chile, and Likasi, Congo are –
Coyhaique, Chile (Chile Summer Time)    Likasi, Congo (Lumbumbashi Time)
Partial solar eclipse begins: 9:23 a.m. local time    Partial solar eclipse begins: 5:29 p.m. local time
Annular solar eclipse begins: 10:35:54 a.m.   Annular solar eclipse begins: 6:30:11 p.m.
Maximum eclipse: 10:36:20 a.m.   Maximum eclipse: 6:30:49 p.m.
Annular solar eclipse ends: 10:36:46 a.m.   Annular solar eclipse ends: 6:31:27 p.m.
    Sunset: 6:35 p.m.
Partial solar eclipse ends: 11:56 a.m.   Partial solar eclipse ends: 7:27 p.m.
Duration: 2 hours 33 minutes   Duration: 1 hour 58 minutes
Elon Musk announces that his company SpaceX plans to launch two paying customers on a weeklong mission around the moon by the end of 2018. Just a few days later, word leaks that Bezos' Blue Origin aims to start delivering science experiments, human habitats and other gear to the moon by mid-2020 or so.
March 9:
In the Aleutian islands of Alaska, USA – the Bogostof volcano erupts, ejecting ash about 35,000 feet (10.6 km) into the atmosphere. At the same time there is a huge new lava outbreak at #Kilauea volcano, Hawaii.
In Sicily, Italy – Mount Etna begins erupting from a crater on the south-eastern side of the 3,000-metre peak. It is the third time in less than three weeks that Europe’s most active volcano, which overlooks the city of Catania, has erupted, spewing lava almost 200 metres into the sky.
Watch the space walk from the International Space Station on NASA TV of Expedition 50 Commander Shane Kimbrough and Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson of NASA reconnecting cables and electrical connections on PMA-3 at its new home on top the Harmony module. A 1.5m (5ft) debris shield being installed on the International Space Station has floated away during the space-walk by two veteran US astronauts. At the time, Whitson (57), and station commander Shane Kimbrough (49), were about midway through a planned 6.5-hour space-walk to prepare a docking port for upcoming commercial space taxis and to tackle other maintenance tasks. NASA said engineers determined it posed no safety threat to the astronauts or to the facility,
a $100 billion research laboratory that flies about 250 miles (402 km) above Earth.
April 1:
In Mocoa, Colombia, South America – Near midnight, three flooding rivers converge near the Ecuador border to send a wall of water through the town. President Juan Manuel Santos said 193 people had been killed and authorities said as many as 220 were feared missing.
In Southern Africa – A 6.5 magnitude earthquake strikes central Botswana at a depth of 12km, and is felt as far as Johannesburg in South Africa.
Discovered by the Mt. Lemmon Survey in Arizona (USA) on April 3, 2017
At 07:34 (UT) asteroid 2017 GM makes a close pass of our planet. It is one of the 10 closest asteroids known so far to sweep past Earth, and then keep going. At its closest, it was less than 1/20th of the moon’s mean distance, within 10,000 miles of Eath (16,000 km, about 0.04 lunar distances).
April 19:
Asteroid 2014 JO25 passes safely at 4.6 times the moon’s distance (around 7:24 a.m. Central Time / 12:24 UTC), at some 1,098,733 miles (1,768,239 km).
It’s 60 times the diameter of the asteroid that penetrated the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013.
In Chile, South America – 6.9 magnitude earthquake strikes about 41 km from Valparaíso, even causing buildings in Santiago to sway.
The American Cassini spacecraft contacts Earth after its successful first-ever dive between the planet Saturn and its rings. The spacecraft is now in the process of beaming back science and engineering data collected during its historic dive. As it dove through the gap, Cassini came within about 1,900 miles (3,000 km) of Saturn’s cloud tops and within about 200 miles (300 km) of the innermost visible edge of the rings. Cassini has now begun began what mission planners call its Grand Finale during which the spacecraft loops Saturn approximately once per week, making a total of 22 dives between the rings and the planet.
Cassini’s next dive through the gap is scheduled for Tuesday (May 2, 2017).
The spacecraft, which is almost out of fuel, is on a trajectory that will eventually plunge it into Saturn’s atmosphere –
ending its mission – on September 15, 2017.
The gap between the rings and the top of Saturn’s atmosphere – a region that has never been explored – is about 1,500 miles (2,000 km) wide.

21: A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses the United States. The path of the moon’s umbral shadow begins in the northern Pacific and crosses the U.S. from west to east through parts of the following states: Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, and South Carolina.
The moon’s penumbral shadow produces a partial eclipse visible from a much larger region covering most of North America.
Eclipse Wise Page
Astronomer Larry Molnar and his colleagues and students have made an unprecedented prediction of a star explosion – due in the year 2022, or thereabouts within a year – that’ll become visible from Earth, even to those without telescopes. The star system is an eclipsing binary system (one star passes in front of the other as seen from Earth) known as KIC 9832227. When that happens, the star will increase its brightness 10 thousandfold, temporarily becoming a bright star in Earth’s sky. The star will be visible as part of the constellation Cygnus, and will add a star to the recognizable Northern Cross star pattern.
New evidence suggests that these two very close stars are getting closer and will merge explosively, soon.
Asteroid 99942 Apophis is expected to come close to earth but NASA has said that it will not endanger our planet.
Named after English astronomer Edmond Halley, who determined the comet's periodicity, the comet is visible from Earth every 76 years. Captured by several interplanetary spacecraft, the comet is believed to be composed of volatile ice and dust.
Leaving a trail of blazing light every time it passes over Earth, Halleys Comet last appeared in 1986 and will be seen next in 2061.
  See Weather Underground Videos
  See Also: The Environmental Justice Atlas
  NASA expects an earthquake to hit LA by 2018

Reviewing Earthquake Safety and Preparedness
•  Getting Your Family Prepared for a Disaster
•  A Caregiver’s Natural Disaster Prep List
•  Homeowner’s Guide to Lightning Safety
•  Hurricanes
•  Tornado Safety: How to Stay Safe During the Storm
•  4 Ways to Keep Your Dog Safe When Disaster Strikes
Useful links
provided by
Sara Bell
In the USA
California's earthquake vulnerability:

In the long-term,
seismic activity is gradually shifting from the southern stretch of the San Andreas fault (above) across to the younger San Jacinto fault.
Dangerous Fault Network
Research suggests the Ventura fault is connected to others that could cause a 7.7 to 8.1 magnitude earthquake from Santa Barbara area to San Bernardina County.

Survival Tips
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater since 1900.
The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities
Deviation in Earth Rotation Speed In Seconds Per Day
How the earth's magnetic field protects life on this planet from the solar-wind of highly charged particles
The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) illustrated below is of great significance to astronomical satellites and other spacecraft which orbit the earth at several hundred kilometres altitude, for these orbits take satellites through the SAA periodically, exposing them to several minutes of strong radiation. The SAA is the point where the Van Allen radiation belts (rings of charged particles that surround Earth) come closest to our planet's surface.
South Atlantic
Magnetic Anomaly
which moves
slowly westward.
It is one of the most dangerous areas of radiation ever encountered.
We are currently in a time of increased solar activity as the graph below indicates.
Some astronauts aboard the International Space Station have lined their sleep stations with bags of water,
for H2O is an excellent and readily available protection from the
bombardment of high energy particles
(ions, electrons and protons)
The Bible indicates that, prior to the continuing global tsunami of Noah, our atmosphere was shielded by a water vapour canopy (Genesis 1:7),
which then collapsed over a 40-day period, and is part of why, subsequently, human longevity showed such a sudden decline (55%).
See video
New research reveals that our sun's branch of the Milky Way may be several times longer than previously measured,
which would make it a significant contender in the structure of the galaxy.
Spiral galaxies like the Milky Way contain several massive structures known as 'arms', which unwind from our galaxy's center.
Our sun's neighborhood is called the Orion Arm, though scientists often refer to it as the Local Arm.
Despite its name, it is classified as a spur – a collection of dust and gas that lies between the more massive arms.
"Our study reveals that the Local Arm is not only a tiny spur of the Milky Way. It includes a prominent major arm
nearly extending to the Perseus Arm and a long spur branching between the Local and Sagittarius Arms,"
said astronomer Ye Xu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to via email.
Xu led a team that identified eight new features in the Orion Arm and determined that it is much longer than scientists have previously
August 14: The comet Swift–Tuttle (formally designated 109P/Swift–Tuttle) is due to pass perilously close to earth.
It has a comet nucleus 26 km in diameter and is the parent body of the Perseid meteor shower. A close encounter with Earth is also predicted for the comet's return to our inner Solar System in the year 4479, around September 15.
It is captured into a 1:11 orbital resonance with the planet Jupiter, so it completes one orbit for every 11 of Jupiter.
•  August 14: The next perihelion of the comet 109P/Swift–Tuttle (its solid nucleus is about 27 kilometres/16.8 miles across) which is expected to be visible to the naked eye from earth. The past debris from this comet gives rise to the annual Perseid meteor shower which the earth passes through from mid July to early August each year.
•  c.September 15: comet 109P/Swift–Tuttle is expected to return to our inner solar system.

Free Disaster Recover Training
Earthquake Safety Tips Earthquake Recovery Resource Guide See: Earth Weather Action
Direct from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Broadcast by Ustream.TV
  – Watch Direct Engineering Camera Transmissions From Mars –  The End is not yet!

Click for a broad range of sun-related information see: Solar Cycle 24 Data.
– See Also: Real Time World Wide Monitoring of Earthquakes –

Data compiled from many sources.
• See: Insightful Article by Robinson, Robinson and Soon, of the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine.

• Dr. D. Bruce Merrifield – Professor of Management Emeritus at the Wharton School of Business,
served in the Reagan Administration as Under-secretary of Commerce for Technology and Economic Affairs:
believes Global Warming is GOOD.
Global Warming and CO2
"research literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th Century have produced no deleterious effects upon global weather, climate, or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates. Predictions of harmful climatic effects due to future increases in minor greenhouse gases like CO2 are in error and do not conform to current experimental knowledge." (Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, 2001)
Crbon 14 fluctuations Before Present courtesy of Global Warming Art
[Graph-direction is reverse of left graph]
Commencing from the middle of the Little Ice Age (see 1550 AD above) from which we are probably still recovering.
Images created by Robert A. Rohde
Join: Oxford University's World Climate Prediction Experiment
time scale is reversed; with time increasing to the right to match the shorter-term temperature record plotting convention
Phanerozoic Eon temperatures

Copyright © Lloyd Thomas 2000-2017. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.