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World Weather
A date-listing of events and conditions to help construct an idea of climatic fluctuations and other natural events as a background to human history.

Please – let the earth breath!
For the sake of Him who made it!
Human migrations, associated wars, and the development of civilizations has been hugely affected by our earth's climate and its fluctuations in weather patterns, particularly for agrarian economies, which means for most of human history.

The sovereign care of God's wisdom in this field is a useful perspective to hold in our understanding of history.
See also:
The Genesis Prologue

This brief history of world weather should be seen against the background of the historically unique
 Rainbow–Covenant of God 
enacted concerning the four particular life-forms preserved during the 370-day Flood of Noah –
1. humankind;  2. birds;  3. domesticated; and  4. wild animals.
Genesis 9:8-17.
Please note: Bible Genealogy is NOT chronology
For instance, the age of Adam at his death is only given from the time he began to age (as for his descendants also, from their birth), and his aging only began after his lost access to the Tree of Life (Gen.3:22). We do not know how long the period was before this event.
About
9,000 BC, certain cycles of our planet combined to give a specially warm period for the northern hemisphere (Holocene) with significant effect.
These cycles are:
1. 
The changing position of the earth in its orbit relative to the time of year, known as precession of the equinoxes, with a cycle of 19 to 21,000 years. This cycle affects climate and has thus left its mark in the rock layers of earth's crust.
2. 
The wobble in the earth's spin about its axis, varies between 22.1° and 24.5° tilt during a cycle of 41,000 years. The so-called Holocene Maximum (c.7000 to c.3000 BC) apparently had an axial tilt of 24°. Earth's tilt is currently 23° 27’ and decreasing.
3. 
And the orbital eccentricity of our planet about every 100,000 years.
 
ON A PLANET
  SET AS SEED-PLOT OF
  THE  UNIVERSE
Note:
maximum temperatures during our last interglacial period were higher than the current interglacial period, and certain Greenhouse gases, principally CO2, were more abundant then than is so today. Within this continuing process many minor fluctuations do occur for reasons that are still largely speculative.
 
 
Also, contrary to much popular science, the latest analysis of geological evidences has found no correlation between carbon dioxide levels and changes in world climate. But, variations in the level of cosmic radiation correlate directly with major wet and dry cycles in earth history. Cosmic rays provide the ionization needed in the atmosphere to stimulate cloud formation and thus rainfall.
 
In addition,
the relative behaviour of our sun, not only seasonal in the equinox-progression, as in 1 above, but also by its sun spot cycles appears to trigger changes in climate. For instance, for seventy years from 1645 AD there was no recorded sun spot activity, which, it is alleged, led to a cold period becoming a minor ice age. The sun spot cycle usually averages at 10.28 years, varying between nine and fourteen years. This sun spot cycle seems to be affected by the magnetosphere of planet Jupiter influencing the stability of loops forming in the sun's magnetic field which give rise to sun spots.
See
Global Warming
The
sun also appears to have a brightness cycle of 206 years of which we are now about midway, which may explain a 150 year Yucatan dry period which appears to have helped collapse the Mayan civilization. (See 900 AD).
206 year sun cycle
 
Some major earthquakes are also noted below as they account for more than 10% of deaths from natural hazards; although worldwide the earth actually experiences about 500,000 earthquakes each year if all are counted.
 
— CONTINUING UNDER CONSTRUCTION —
A Very Rough Summary of Major Climate Fluctuations in Human History
2700 BC                   
1800 BC
Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch
  950 AD Medieval Warm Period
|   |
1500 BC   1200 AD
1350 BC
Late Bronze Age Optimum
  1200 AD
Medieval Glaciation
|   |
1250 BC   1460 AD
900 BC  
Iron Age Climate Pessimum / Iron Age Cold Epoch
  1460 AD
Brief Climatic Improvement
|   |
300 BC   1560 AD
200 BC
Roman Age Optimum
  1560 AD
Little Ice Age
|   |
300 AD   1890 AD
450 AD
Dark Ages Cold Period / Migration Period Pessimum
  1890 AD Modern Climatic Optimum
|   |
900 AD   2010 AD

c.128000-112000
The Eemian interglacial in which world sea-level is 4 to 6 mteres (13-20 feet) higher than today.
 
ON A PLANET
  SET AS SEED-PLOT OF
  THE  UNIVERSE
c.69000
In Mossel Bay, Western Cape, South Africa – high quantity of microlith spear-points at Pinnacle Point cave 13B in the coastal cliffs and cave deposits indicate that at this time abundant game was available to its hunter-gatherer population in a time of very low sea levels and higher rain fall in this area which provides a broad well-watered grassy coastal plain, while most of Africa is desert and the earth endures an ice age. (The stone used was apparently heat-treated with fire so that it would flake properly and could then be fashioned to give a sharp edge down one side and a blunt back on the other which allowed them to be glued onto a wooden shaft, creating a deadly yet lightweight spear).
c.8000
Monsoon rains begin to penetrate into northern Africa changing the Sahara area to lush green vegetation.
c.6100
A 290 km length of coastal shelf of the Møre coast in the Norwegian Sea collapses (total volume of 3,500 km3 of debris) causing a huge tsunami, striking Scotland and depositing sediment in Montrose Basin, the Firth of Forth, up to 80 km inland and 4 metres above current normal tide levels
Kennewick Man's Skull
c.6000
Britain becomes an island.
c.5600
The Mediterranean Sea breaks through with devastating force to fill the Black Sea basin (~ 50 cubic km. a day). (See National Geographic report). The shift of this water mass triggers earthquakes throughout the region, and mass human migrations (Indo-European). (see 2715 BC also).
  
Mt. Mazama in America's Pacific North West erupts violently, leaving ash deposits over stone tools of the earliest inhabitants. These help to date the earlier caucasian Ainu-type (Jomon) 'Kennewick' man's remains from this area. (The earliest human inhabitant of North America discovered to date).
Egypt forms
The Nile river changes its course, from feeding the North African lakes, to its approximate present route into the Mediterranean Sea.
c.5000
In Mesoamerica – planting of maize begins in forest-cleared land.
c.4000
Human migration from the Sahara into the Nile valley begins as a result of climate changes.
c.3500
In Egypt – A period of significantly higher Nile floods begins, continuing until c.2500 BC.
c.32-3100
World sea level stabilizes to approximately its present level. 
c.3000
The drying out of the Sahara area destroys its cattle culture and drives its inhabitants away, adding to the population of the Nile valley, and bringing the cattle-cult and mummification of the dead (including the dog/jackal-headed Anubis) with them. (University of Rome archaeological research).
c.2715
Catastrophic Black Sea land subsidence, according to dendrochronology (tree-ring dating), which drowns all Early Bronze Age settlements in that region under what is now 8-10 metres of water.
c.2500
Earth climate cools, putting once flourishing settlements in the higher latitudes, such as in the Orkney islands north of Scotland, under great stress.
In Mesoamerica – Farming of domesticated sunflower seeds and cotton spreads.
c.2194
East Africa, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Gulf of Oman, Aegean, Indus experience an abrupt climate change.
c.2180
In Egypt – A period of low Nile floods begins that includes periodic severe famines, until c.1950 BC.
c.2160
In Egypt – Climatic changes hasten the end of Egypt's Old Kingdom.
c.2100
In Southern Mesopotamia – Ur civilization collapses under extended severe drought caused by an extended El-Niño in the Pacific Ocean.
c.1950
The arid period of severe periodic famines, which began from c.2180 BC, now ends.
  1876
Drought begins throughout North Africa and the Middle East. The Nile does not rise for seven years.
  1869
In Egypt – The Great Seven-year Famine ends with the Egyptian administration restructured over three regions of Egypt and its people grouped into cities, under vizier Joseph.
c.1840
In Egypt – A period of exceptionally high Nile floods begins, continuing until c.1780 BC/BCE.
c.1660
Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupts violently.
c.1628
In Eastern Mediterranean – Minoan island Thera (Santorini) north of Crete explodes (Caphtor=Crete, migration of the Philistines, Amos 9:7), causing volcanic ash, a huge tidal-wave/tsunami, and helping the collapse of Minoan civilization.
1150
In Iceland, the volcano Hekla erupts blanketing Europe in dust that radically changes the climate causing the collapse of Mycenaean Greek civilization, and probably affecting the economies of the Near East.
c.915
Mesopotamia is utterly devastated by a long drought which leads to an almost complete breakdown of civil authority.
Earth Cooling! 850
An abrupt cooling of earth-climate begins.
780
June 4: The Chinese witness the first recorded solar eclipse.
763
June 15: Total eclipse of the sun.
709
July 17: Chinese astronomers report an eclipse of the sun.
c.490
In Jutland, Denmark area – A woman about 50-years old is buried in a bog, probably as a ritual human sacrifice, which preserves it from decay (during earliest part of Iron Age in northern Europe), and after its discovery in 1835 it becomes known as the 'Haraldskær Woman' (It is kept today in Vejle, Denmark).
 
479
In Eastern Mediterranean – A tsunami during the Persian invasion of Greece helps protect the northern Greek village of Potidaea (modern Nea Poteidaia) from its Persian attackers by drowning many of the invading soldiers. (The incident is referred to by Greek historian Herodotus, and verified in 2012 by German scientists from Aachen University).
Mediterranean Tsunami
475-250
In Mesoamerica – Intense drought.
c.450
An especially cold wave during the expansion of ancient Greece.
426
Summer: A series of earthquakes off Greece generate a tsunami in the Maliakos Gulf which affects the course of the Peloponnesian War by forcing the advancing Spartans to abort their planned invasion of Attica. Ancient geographer Strabo reports that throughout Greece parts of islands are submerged, rivers permanently displaced and towns devastated. The tsunami itself hit the coast in the Maliakos Gulf at three different places, reaching towns as far as three quarters of a mile inland. The force of the tsunami was such that at one place a trireme was lifted out of its dock and thrown over a city wall.
373
An earthquake and a tsunami destroy the prosperous Greek city Helike, lying 2 km away from the sea. The fate of the city, which remained permanently submerged, is often commented upon by ancient writers.
40ff
A Catastrophic rise in the ocean's eustatic sea level occurs approximately between the years 40 BC to 100 AD. as a result of an abnormal change in world climate. Evidence for this occurrence of a sudden and abnormal rise of the Dead Sea level during this period, consists of various morphological data, and dendrochronology.
Two thousand years earlier a similar rise of the sea level is estimated to have occurred.
31
Earthquake destroys Qumran (Mesad Hasidim, 'Stronghold of the Pious'), and shakes Jerusalem.
BC/BCE 10
World sea level is about 2 metres (7 feet) below its present level.

AD/CE 17
• Earthquake shakes the Middle East destroying towns in Anatolia (Ephesus, Sardis).
30
The Christ of God is crucified!
46
• Severe famine strikes Judaea (Josephus Ant.20.101), as Agabus had prophesied to the Christians in Antioch, Syria, to prepare relief supplies (Acts 11:28).
c.62
• In Italy, an earthquake seriously damages the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. (The cities have not yet recovered from this catastrophe when they are destroyed in 79 AD).
77
• In Greece, Corinth is devastated by an earthquake.
79
• August 24: In Italy, Mount Vesuvius erupts destroying the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae.
125-210
• In Mesoamerica – Intense drought.
200
A period of low sunspot activity begins.
Earth Cooling! 230
Low sunspot activity triggers a period of global cooling.
Note
200-600
• Drought across the steppes of Eastern Europe causes migrations of pastoral nomads and serious shrinkage of the Aral and Caspian seas. Salt laden winds from the Aral sea area may have affected climate elsewhere.
This is probably caused by an extended severe El- Niño effect, which also causes the complete collapse of the Moche civilization in South America.
250/252
• In Britain – The Thames River feezes for nine weeks.
 
290-291
• In Britain – The Thames River feezes for nine weeks.
 
300-336
• In Cyprus an unending 36-year drought causes its inhabitants to leave.
 
301
The entire Back Sea freezes over.
 
365
• Sunrise, July 21: a devastating earthquake in the Hellenic trench off the coast of Crete, estimated at 8 or higher on the Richter scale, causes a tsunami that strikes the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, particularly Alexandria and the Nile Delta, killing thousands and hurling ships nearly two miles inland. It causes widespread destruction in central and southern Greece, northern Libya, Egypt, Cyprus, and Sicily, and in Crete nearly all towns are destroyed. The quake was generated in a steep fault in the Hellenic trench near Crete. (The anniversary of this disaster was still commemorated annually at the end of the 6th century in Alexandria as a "day of horror).
Terrible Earthquake!
The relatively numerous literary references to earthquakes in this time which is otherwise characterized by a paucity of historical records strengthens the case for a period of heightened seismic activity. Kourion on Cyprus, for example, is known to have been hit by five strong earthquakes within a period of eighty years, leading to its permanent destruction.
c.450
The Migration Period Pessimum (MPP, also known as Dark Ages Cold Period) begins in large areas of central Europe and Scandinavia, causing the retreat of agriculture, including pasturing, with consequent reforestation, and decline of the Roman Empire. (It lasted to about 900 AD, and is followed by the Medieval Warm Period from about 950 to 1250 AD).
526
• May 20/29: Earthquake strikes Antioch, Syria, followed by fire, killing about 250,000, and causing an uplift of its port of Seleucia-Pereia of ~0.7–0.8M and subsequent silting up which makes it unusable.
605
• A violent storm shatters Mecca's sacred Ka'ba (meaning cube). 
684
• November 29: An earthquake estimate at 8.4 magnitude strikes Japan off the shore of the Kii Peninsula, Nankaido, Shikoku, Kii, and Awaji region, followed by a huge tsunami.
747
• September 11: An earthquake wrecks Jerusalem, collapsing the eastern and western sides of the Dome of the Rock. The 'Nea' church complex is also destroyed and not rebuilt. 
750-1025
• In Mesoamerica – A dry period.
774/775
A blast of gamma rays striking earth causes a spike in the formation of C-14 in the atmosphere, about 20 times higher than the normal rate of variation in the last 3,000 years, probably lasting about 2-seconds. Scientists speculate that it could have been cause by two 'black holes' colliding and converging. (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records a "red crucifix" in the sky after sunset in 774 which may point to an unrecognised astronomical event which caused the radiation burst).
C-14 half-life of
5730(±40)-years
813
• An earthquake seriously damages the dome of the Anastasis in Jerusalem, and a locust plague devastates the countryside which leads to severe famine in Palestine. 
830-930
• In Mesoamerica – Mayan cities are abandoned as drought destroys their economy.
856
• December 22: c.200,000 die in Damghan, Iran; and 45,000 die in an earthquake in Corinth, Greece, but this is sometimes given as being in November.
865
Folke Vilgerdson of Norway names Iceland 'Iceland' from his experience of a severe winter and its sea-ice filling the fjord in a failed attempt to settle. (In 874, Ingolf Arnason succeeded).
869
• July 13: The Sendai region of northern Honshu, Japan is struck by a major earthquake of an estimated magnitude of 8.6 on the surface wave magnitude scale, followed by a tsunami that causes flooding extending 4 km inland from the coast. The town of Tagajo is destroyed, with an estimated 1,000 casualties.
893
• March 23: c.150,000 die in an earthquake near Ardabil, Iran, near the Caspian sea.
c.900
• Collapse of the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan Peninsula resulting from a 150 year drought precipitated by the 206 year cyclical brightening of the sun.
 
c.930 The Medieval warm period begins.  
 
There is evidence in North Africa for low Nile discharge during the years 930 to 1070 AD/CE.
 
982
Erik the Red discovered new land West of Iceland and calls it 'Greenland'.
 
1000-1300
• Europe enjoys 300 years of warmer weather that increases harvests and allows wheat to be cultivated much further north and at higher elevations.
See Graph
1033
• An earthquake disturbs the surface area of Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The subsidence around 'Solomon's Stables' is filled up with archaeologically rich debris.
1054
• A star explodes in the constellation of Taurus which later forms the Crab nebula.
1066
• A seven year famine begins in Egypt during which the Nile does not rise.
1138
• c.230 000 die in an earthquake in Aleppo, Syria.
 
There is evidence in North Africa for low Nile river discharge from 1180 to 1350.
Earth Cooling! 1250
• Atlantic pack ice begins to grow, making passages between Norway, Iceland and Greenland more difficult.
1268
• c.60 000 die in an earthquake near Silicia, Turkey.
1270
• Earth cooling worsens, leading to the collapse of Greenland civilization.
1276
• Life expectancy as reflected in the records of the British royal family (the best-off in society) is 35.28 years.
1290
• c.100 000 die in an earthquake near Chihli, China.
1293
•  A magnitude 7.1 quake and tsunami hit Kamakura, Japan's de facto capital, killing 23,000 after resulting fires.
1300
• Warm summers in Europe are no longer dependable.
1303
• A large tsunami strikes Crete, Rhodes, Alexandria and Acre in Palestine.
1315-17
The Great Famine
10–25% of many cities die.
• In Britain and Northern Europe, torrential rain and floods cause a general famine. Hundreds of thousands of peasants die of starvation. These years begin a period of unpredictable weather which lasted into the 19th century. (Europe does not fully recover until 1325).
The futility of prayer undermines the institutional authority of the Church.
Incidents of cannibalism occur in Ireland and other parts of Northern Europe.
Unpredictable weather begins
1337
• March 3: A solar eclipse.
1348
• August: Epidemics of pneumonia and bubonic plague sweep Britain until the end of 1349. Life expectancy for the period until 1375 drops to 17.33 years.
1349 • September 9: Earthquake devastates the Molise–Latium–Abruzzi regions of the Italian Apennines, razing the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, among others. Sun's Spörer Minimum begins
1356 • October 18, ~10.00 PM: Northwest Switzerland is struck by an earthquake which completely destroys Basel and every structure within a 30 kilometre radius, with an intensity of about 6.2.
1361
• The Black Death reappears in England and ravages Europe. The survivors of the first wave of Black Death are better able to resist the disease than were people in general during the first wave in 1348, and the second wave of plague is less severe than the first wave.
1427
• March 15: Earthquake located in Amer, Catalonia, Spain, with intensity estimated between 8 and 9 on the Richter scale, destroys the town.
• May 15: Earthquake epicentre located in Olot, Catalonia, Spain, with intensity estimated at 9.
1456
• December 5: Earthquake strikes Naples, Italy, killing about 35,000.
1498
• September 20: An earthquake and tsunami hit the port in Wakayama, Japan. Between 30-40 thousand deaths are estimated. The building around great Buddha of Kamakura (7m above sea-level) is swept away by the tsunami.
1528
• England experiences foul weather, a poor harvest, and high mortality from 'sweating sickness' (profuse sweat, foul smell, thirst, delirium, death within a few hours of onset).
• An earthquake destroys San Salvador, capital of El Salvador, Central America.
1531
• February 26: Over 200,000 people are killed in an earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal.
1541
• The first Spanish settlement in Venezuela, Nueva Cádiz, with a population between 1000 and 1500, is destroyed in an earthquake followed by tsunami.
1550
• Probable beginning of worldwide glacial expansion.
1550-1700
Much of the earth endures the so-called Little Ice Age. Global average temperature drops between 1° and 2° Celsius, ice sheets advance over farms and valleys in Greenland, the Baltic sea and Thames river freeze regularly, crops fail, and famine and disease affect Europe.
Iceland becomes isolated as its sea ice does not melt in summer.
Little Ice Age
1556
• January 23: c.830,000 die in an earthquake in Shen-shu, China, measuring ~8 on the Richter scale.
  1595
• In England, Elizabethan preacher, John King, declares –
"Our years are turned upside down; our summers are no summers; our harvests are no harvests".
1605
• February 3: An earthquake of 8.1 in Japan followed by a tsunami hits 700 houses (41%) of Hiro, Wakayama Prefecture. More than 5,000 are drowned in an enormous tsunami with a maximum known rise of water of 30m is observed on the coast from the Boso Peninsula to the eastern part of Kyushu Island. The eastern part of the Boso Peninsula, the coast of Tokyo Bay, the coast of the prefectures of Kanagawa and Shizouka, and the southeastern coast of Kochi Prefecture suffered especially heavily.

Sun's 'Maunder Minimum' begins
(See Sunspot Chart Below)
1607
• In England, the Thames freezes over.
• January 30, Tuesday morning: A huge tidal surge strikes Britain from the south west driving more than six miles inland and drowning more than 3,000 persons, hundreds of thousands of cattle and sheep, and destroying the local economy on both sides of the Bristol channel.
1638
• A total eclipse of the moon coincides with the northern hemisphere winter solstice.
1645 • No sun spot activity is recorded for the following seventy years.
1650 • Climatic minimum.
1667 • c.80 000 die in an earthquake near Shemakha, Azerbaijan.
1668
• August 17: c.8,000 die in an earthquake in Turkey measuring ~8 on the Richter scale.
1669
• Mount Etna in Sicily erupts.
1693
• c.60 000 die in an earthquake in Sicily, Italy.
  1698
• December 22: A large tsunami strikes Seikaido-Nankaido, Japan.
NOTE: 1700
• January 26, at 21h00 (9pm): an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale tears about 1,000km along the Cascadia fault line, from mid Vancouver Island, Canada, to northern California, causing a huge tsunami across the Pacific causing destruction along the Pacific coast of Japan. On the west coast of Vancouver Island, the tsunami completely destroys the winter village of the Pachena Bay people with no survivors.
1707
• October 28: An 8.4 earthquake and tsunami 25.7-meter-high strikes the Kochi Prefecture, Japan. More than 29,000 houses are wrecked and then washed away, causing about 30,000 deaths. In Tosa, 11,170 houses are washed away and 18,441 people drowned. In OsakaAbout about 700 drown and 603 houses are washed away. The tsunami is 20M high at Tanezaki, Tosa, and 6.58 at Muroto.
1715
• Seventy years of virtually no sun-spot activity now ends, which had caused a mini ice age across our planet, in which, among other, the Norwegian colony in Greenland is annihilated by attacks of Eskimos forced South by the cold.
1727
• c.77,000 die in an earthquake near Tabriz, Iran.
1737
• c.300,000 die in an earthquake in Calcutta, India.
1739-40
• The Thames river freezes over.
1741
• August 29: Western Hokkaido, Japan, is hit by a tsunami associated with the eruption of the volcano on Oshima island. The cause of the tsunami is thought to have been an undersea landslide triggered by the eruption. 1,467 people are killed on Hokkaido and another 8 in Aomori Prefecture.
1755
• November 1, 10h16: An earthquake near Lisbon, Portugal, measuring ~8.7 on the Richter scale, is followed by a tsunami with a maximum height of 15 metres (49 ft), which goes far inland. Between 60,000 and 100,000 people die in Lisbon alone, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history.The tsunami takes just over 4 hours to travel over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to Cornwall, UK. An account by Arnold Boscowitz claimed "great loss of life." It also hits Galway in Ireland, and causes some serious damage to the Spanish Arch section of the city wall.
Nearly 100,000 dead
1771
• April 4, ~8AM:An undersea earthquake of estimated magnitude 7.4 occurred near Yaeyama Islands in Okinawa, Japan. The earthquake is not believed to have directly resulted in any deaths, but a resulting tsunami is thought to have killed about 12,000 people, (9,313 on the Yaeyama Islands and 2,548 on Miyako Islands according to one source). Estimates of the highest seawater run up on Ishigaki Island, range between 30 meters and 85.4 meters. The tsunami put an abrupt stop to population growth on the islands, and was followed by malaria epidemics and crop failures which decreased the population further. It was to be another 148 years before population returned to its pre-tsunami level.
About 12,000 dead
1780
• February 28: c.200,000 die in an earthquake in Iran.
1783
• Iceland (Laki) is seriously affected by two huge eruptions of lava. Volcanic ash covers the island and 75% of livestock die.
• c.50,000 die in an earthquake in Calabria, Italy.
1785
• Iceland suffers terrible famine and about 10,000 people die.
1792
• Major volcanic eruption in Unzen, Japan. Tsunamis are the main cause of death for Japan's worst-ever volcanic disaster, due to an eruption of Mount Unzen in Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. It begins towards the end of 1791 as a series of earthquakes on the western flank of Mount Unzen which gradually moved towards Fugen-daké, one of Mount Unzen's peaks. In February 1792, Fugen-daké starts to erupt, triggering a lava flow which continued for two months. Meanwhile, the earthquakes continue, shifting nearer to the city of Shimabara.
Sun's Dalton Minimum
On the night of
21 May, two large earthquakes are followed by a collapse of the eastern flank of Mount Unzen's Mayuyama dome, causing an avalanche which sweeps through Shimabara and into Ariake Bay, triggering a tsunami. It is not known to this day whether the collapse occurred as a result of an eruption of the dome or as a result of the earthquakes. The tsunami strikes Higo Province on the other side of Ariake Bay before bouncing back and hitting Shimabara again. Out of an estimated total of 15,000 fatalities, around 5,000 is thought to have been killed by the landslide, around 5,000 by the tsunami across the bay in Higo Province, and a further 5,000 by the tsunami returning to strike Shimabara. The waves reached a height of 330 ft, classing this tsunami as a small megatsunami.
  1799
• November 5: A violent storm strikes Table Bay, Cape Town, South Africa, wrecking many ships and drowning more than 300 passengers and crew of the destroyed ships.
The bodies recovered are buried in mass graves on Table Bay beach (which is today buried under Cape Town's Foreshore).
No sunspots! 1810
• Zero sunspot activity!
1811
• June 2: A violent earthquake rocks Cape Town, South Africa.
1813-14
• In London, the Thames river freezes over for the last time.
1815
• Major volcanic eruption in Tambora, Indonesia which causes the 1816 "Year Without a Summer" in the northern hemisphere.
1833
• November 25: A massive earthquake estimated at between 8.8-9.2 on the moment magnitude scale, strikes Sumatra, Indonesia. The coast of Sumatra near the quake's epicentre is hardest hit by the resulting tsunami
1834
• In Jerusalem: many Christian monasteries are damaged by an earthquake.
1854
• November 4: A magnitude 8.4 earthquake strikes near what is today Aichi Prefecture and Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, followed by a tsunami.
• November 5: A magnitude 8.4 earthquake strikes in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, generating a tsunami of 28 meters at Kochi, Japan. The earthquake and tsunami kill 3,000 people. The tsunami washed 15,000 homes away. The number of homes destroyed directly by the earthquake is 2,598; in which 1,443 people died
• November 7: A 7.4 earthquake in Ehime Prefecture and Oita Prefecture, Japan.
The total death-toll from the three quakes and their tsunamis is between 80,000 and 100,000 people.
Nearly 100,000 dead
1855
• November 11, about 22h00 local: An earthquake strikes Ansei Edo (Tokyo region), Japan, killing between 4,500 to 10,000 people. The Japanese era name is changed to bring good luck after 4 tragic quakes and tsunamis in 2 years.
1857
• January 9, 16h24 UTC: earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9 near Fort Tejon in Southern California.
• December 16, 21h00: c.11,000 die in an earthquake in Naples, Italy, measuring ~6.9 on the Richter scale.
Solar Storm 1859
• September 1-2: Solar storm shorts telegraph wires, starts fires in North America and Europe, and caused bright aurorae to be seen in Cuba and Hawaii.
1861
February 20: A Great Storm ravages England.
1868
• April 2, 4PM: earthquake rocks the Hawaiian islands of an estimated magnitude between 7.5 and 8.0 rocks the southeast coast of the Big Island of Hawaii. It triggers a landslide on the slopes of the Mauna Loa volcano, five miles north of Pahala, killing 31 people. A tsunami then takes 46 additional lives. The villages of Punaluu, Ninole, Kawaa, Honuapo, and Keauhou Landing are severely damaged and the village of 'Apua is destroyed.
• August 16: An earthquake of magnitude estimated at 8.5 strikes the Peru-Chile oceanic trench. The resulting tsunami strikes the port of Arica, Chile, then part of Peru, killing an estimated 25,000 in Arica and 70,000 in all. Three military vessels anchored at Arica, the US warship Wateree and the store ship Fredonia, and the Peruvian warship America, are swept up by the tsunami.
About 70,000 dead

1883
• August 26-27: Major volcanic eruption in Krakatau, Indonesia, causing tsunamis that kill more than 36,000 people on the islands of Java and Sumatra. The island volcano of Krakatoa in Indonesia explodes with devastating fury blowing its underground magma chamber partly empty so that much overlying land and seabed collapses into it. A series of large tsunamis are generated from the collapse, some reaching a height of over 40 meters above sea level. Tsunamis are observed throughout the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and even as far away as the American West Coast, and South America. On the facing coasts of Java and Sumatra the sea flood goes many miles inland and causes such loss of life that one area is never resettled but reverts to jungle and is now the Ujung Kulon nature reserve.
About 36,000 dead
1891
• October 27, 21h38: c.7,273 die in an earthquake in Mino-Owari, Japan, measuring ~8 on the Richter scale.
1896
• June 15, about 19h36 local: A large undersea earthquake off the Sanriku coast of northeastern Honshu, Japan, triggers a tsunami which strikes the coast about half an hour later with waves, which reached a height of 100 feet, killing about 27,000 people.
1897
• June 12, 11h06: c.1,500 die in an earthquake in Assam, India, measuring ~8.3 on the Richter scale.
Earth's axis tilt is
23° 27’ 8.26”
1902
• Major volcanic eruption of Mount Pele, Martinique, killing some 28,000 people in two minutes.
1906 • January 31, 15h36: c.1,000 die in an earthquake in Colombia-Ecuador, measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale.
• April 18, 13h12: c.3,000 die in an earthquake in San Francisco, California, USA, measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale.
• August 17, 00h40: c.20,000 die in an earthquake in Valparaiso, Chile, measuring 8.2 on the Richter scale.
1908
• December 28, 04h20: more than c.70,000 die in an earthquake and an associated tsunami near Messina, Italy, measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale.
About 70,000 dead
1919
• Major volcanic eruption in Kelud, Java.
1920
• December 16, 12h05: c.200 000 die in an earthquake in Ningxia-Kansu, China, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale.
1923
• March 24: c.5,000 die in an Earthquake in China measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale.
• September 1, 02h58: c.143,000 die in an earthquake near Kanto, Japan, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale. Many die from the Great Tokyo Fire caused by the quake which destroyed over half the brick buildings in the city.
About 143,000 dead

1927
• March 7, 09h27: c.3,020 die in an earthquake in Tango, Japan, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
• May 22, 22h32: c.200,000 die in an earthquake near Tsinghai, China, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale.
1929
• November 18: An earthquake of magnitude 7.2 beneath the Laurentian Slope on the Grand Banks is felt throughout the Atlantic Provinces of Canada, as far west as Ottawa, and as far south as Claymont, Delaware. The resulting tsunami measures over 7 meters in height and takes about 2½ hours to reach the Burin Peninsula on the south coast of Newfoundland, where 28 people lose their lives in various communities. It also snaps telegraph lines laid under the Atlantic.
1932
• c.70,000 die in an earthquake near Gansu, China, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
1933
• March 2, 17h31: c.2,990 die in an earthquake in Sanriku, Japan, measuring 8.4 on the Richter scale.
• March 11, 01h54: 115 die in an earthquake in Long Beach, California, USA, measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale.
1934
• January 15, 08h43: c.10,700 die in an earthquake in Bihar, India, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
1935
• c.60 000 die in an earthquake near Quetta, Pakistan, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale. Quetta is almost completely destroyed.
About 60,000 dead
1939
• December 26, 23h57: c.32,700 die in an earthquake in Erzincan, Turkey, measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale.
1944
• December 7, 04h35: c.1,223 die in an earthquake in Tonankai, Japan, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
1946
• April 1: The Aleutian Islands tsunami kills 159 people on Hawaii and five in Alaska (the lighthouse keepers at the Scotch Cap Light in the Aleutians). It results in the creation of a tsunami warning system known as the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC), established in 1949 for Oceania countries. The tsunami is known as the April Fools Day Tsunami in Hawaii due to people thinking the warnings were an April Fools prank.
• December 20, 19h19: c.1,330 die in an earthquake in Nankaido, Japan, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale.
1947
• February: In England the Thames river freezes.
1948
• October 5: c.110,000 die in an earthquake in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale.
1949
• August 22: Off the West Coast of British Columbia, Canada, the Queen Charlotte Island's West coast is struck by an 8.1 magnitude earthquake, Canada's largest quake since 1770.
1950
• August 15, 14h09: c.1,526 die in an earthquake in Assam-Tibet, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale.
1952
• November 5: A tsunami from an undersea earthquake kills 2,336 on the Kuril Islands, USSR.
 
• December 5: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1953
• In London the Thames river freezes.
1956
• On the Kamchatka peninsula in eastern Russia, the Besymjanny volcano awakes with a bang following 1,000 years of dormancy and continues to be active, with huge clouds of ash rising on a regular basis. The explosion is one of the most violent volcanic eruptions in the 20th century. Three tectonic plates – the North American Plate, the Okhotsk Plate and the Pacific Plate – collide beneath Kamchatka, with the peninsula's coastal range boasting 30 active volcanoes.
1957
• A flu virus kills nearly four million people in a world pandemic.
1958
• July 9: An earthquake causes a megatsunami to reach a height taller than the Empire State Building, measuring over 520 metres (1,706 ft), killing two at Lituya Bay, Alaska, USA.
Highest tsunami ever!
1960
• February 29, 23h40: c.10,000 die in an earthquake in Agadir, Morocco, measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale.
• May 22, 19h11: c.5,700 die in an earthquake in Chile, measuring 9.5 on the Richter scale, the largest quake ever recorded.
About 10.000 dead
1963 • Major volcanic eruption in Agung, Indonesia.
• In London, the Thames river freezes.
1964
• March 27: A magnitude 9.2 Good Friday Earthquake, causes tsunamis which strike Alaska, British Columbia, California, and coastal Pacific Northwest towns, killing 121 people. The waves are up to 100 feet huigh, and kill 11 people as far away as Crescent City, California.
1970
• May 31, 20h23: c.66,000 die in an earthquake in Peru, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale.
1970-85
• The fishing port of Pozzuoli, Italy, rises by over 3 metres, probably due to the subterranean build up of volcanic magma.
  1971
• November 6, 11AM the USA explodes a 5 megaton nuclear bomb under Amchika island, Alaska, on a tectonic fault-line, which registers 7 on the Richter scale.
Alaska Nuclear Blast
1972
• June 30: First leap second is added to our time to keep atomic clocks in line with changes in the Earth's slowing rotation.
1975
• February 4, 11h36: c.10,000 die in an earthquake in Haicheng, China, measuring 7 on the Richter scale.
1976
• February 4, 09h01: c.23,000 die in an earthquake in Guatemala, Central America, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale.
• July 27, 19h42: c.500,000 (some put the figure as high as 655,000) die in an earthquake in T'ang-shan, northern China, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale, the second greatest number of casualties in recorded history, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
Earth's axis tilt is
23° 26’ 21.44”
1978
• c.15 000 die in an earthquake in Iran.
1980
• Major volcanic eruption of Mount St Helens, USA, destroying 10 million trees, but killing only about 60 people.
1981 • Britain's lowlands are swamped by a tidal surge.
1984 • March: major volcanic eruption in Mauna Loa, Hawaii.
1985
• September 19, 13h17: c.10,000 Mexicans in Michoacan, die in a major earthquake off the Pacific coast.
1986
• Major volcanic eruption in Lake Nyos, Cameroon.
  1987
• February 24: A supernova explosion is observed (in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud).
See: March 28, 1993.
When a star of more than about 8 times the mass of our sun reaches the end of its nuclear fuel reserve, it can no longer produce enough energy to keep it from collapsing under its own immense weight. The core of the star collapses, and its outer layers are ejected in a fast moving shock wave. This huge energy release causes the visible supernova we are able to see.
1988
• December 7, 07h41: c.25,000 die in an earthquake in Spitak, Armenia, measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale.
1989
• March: In Quebec, Canada – A strong solar storm knocks out the power grid causing 6 million people to lose power.
1990
• June 20: c.40,000 die in an earthquake near Gilan, Iran, measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
1991 • Major volcanic eruption in Pinatuba, Philippines.
1993
• March 28: A type Ib supernova explosion (massive star that undergoes core collapse) is observed in the M81 spiral galaxy.
Supernova explosions are one of the most important 'producers' of chemical elements in the Universe, like the oxygen we all breathe.
 
• September 29, 22h25: c.9,748 die in an earthquake in Latur-Killari, India, measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale.
1994 • A solar storm causes major malfunctions to two communications satellites, disrupting television and radio services throughout Canada.
1995
• January 16, 20h46: c.5,502 die in an earthquake in Kobe, Japan, measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale.
1997
• The rotation of the earth changes from a long term slow-down (an extra second in a little less than a year due to a gradual increase in the moon's orbit) to a short term acceleration, most probably from the descent of a large mass in the molten interior of our planet.
The Moon is spiraling away from Earth at an average rate of 3.8cm per year, resulting in a gradual slowing of the earth's rotation.
1998
• July 17, 08h49: c.2,183 die in an earthquake in New Guinea, measuring 7 on the Richter scale.
• November 23: An Arctic cold wave is reported to have killed 71 people across Europe over the last three days. 36 deaths were in Poland and 24 in Romania and Bulgaria.
1999
• January 25, 1819: c.1,185 die in an earthquake in Colombia measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale.
• May 10-12: The solar wind virtually stops (98%+ reduction) during Jupiter's perihelion (closest to the sun), allowing earth's magnetic field to expand with a temporary cooling effect.
• August 17, 00h01: c.17,118 die in an earthquake in Izmit, Turkey, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
• September 20, 17h47: c.2,400 die in an earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan, measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
• November 12, 16h57: c.894 die in an earthquake in Duzce, Turkey, measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale. The August and November in Turkey quakes killed about 20,000 people.
2000
• Tide-gauge records suggest an average global sea-level rise over the past century of 0 to 3mm per year, though there is no firm evidence of acceleration in these rates.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 22,256
sea-level rise
Our sun flips its poles

2001
• January 13, 17h33: c.844 die in an earthquake in El Salvador. measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
• January 26, 03h16: c.20,085 die in an earthquake in Gujarat, India, measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale.
 February 15: Our sun reverses its magnetic polarity as it reaches the peak of its 11-year sunspot cycle.
• Saturday, June 23, 20:33:14 UTC (15:33:14 local time): and earthquake strikes Peru measuring 8.2 on the Richter Scale killing 75 directly and 26 more in the resultant tsunami and disappearance of a further 64.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 23,534
The 200-year sunspot cycle appears to be currently running at 211.4 years.

See Peru 2007
2002
• March 25, 14h56: c.1,000 die in Hindu Kush Region, Afghanistan, in an earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 27,454
2003
• May 21: c.2,266 die in an earthquake in Boumerdes, Algeria, measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale.
• August 10: Temperatures peak at 38.1° Celsius in England.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 31,419
2004
• Sunday 26, December: 00:59 GMT (7.59 am local time): 283,106 die in ten countries hit by tsunamis resulting from an undersea earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, measuring 9.1 on the Richter scale.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 31,194
Deadliest tsunami ever!
2005
• Friday 14, January: The Huygens spacecraft separates from its orbiter and lands with a fully instrumented robotic laboratory on Titan a moon of the planet Saturn.
• Tuesday 22, February: 00:59 GMT? (7.59 am local time?): c.400 die and 1000s are left homeless in Iran from an earthquake in the region of Takara.
• Monday 28, March: 1,313 die in an earthquake in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale.
• Thursday 28, July: an exceptionally heavy monsoon kills more than 700 in the state of Maharashtra in India.
• October: Nearly 87,000 die in an earthquake in the Islamabad and Kashmir region of Pakistan and India, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 30,478
2006
• Wednesday, 3 May: 15:26 GMT (04:26 local time): near the island Tonga, a major quake of 7.9 on the Richter scale.
• Friday, 26 May: 22:53 GMT (Saturday 27 May 05:53 local time): 5,749 die and many thousands are injured and property destroyed in Bantul-Yogyakarta area of Java, Indonesia, in a strong quake of 6.3 on the Richter scale.
• Sunday, 15 October: earthquake (07:07:48 local time): 10 miles NNW of Kailua Kona, Hawaii, USA, measuring 6.6 on the Richter scale, with one after-shock measuring 5.8.
• Tuesday, 26 December: 12:26:21 GMT (8:26:21 pm local time): undersea quake disrupts 7 fibre-optic cables in the Bashi channel between Taiwan and the Philippines slowing communications across southeast Asia and Australia, measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale. Worldwide, internet Spam drops by 10% and viruses drop by 3% in January 2007 as a consequence.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 29,568
2007
• Thursday, 8 March: 11:14:31 GMT: east of the South Sandwich Islands, a quake measuring 6.2 on the Richter scale.
• Sunday, 25 March: 00:40:02 GMT: about 115 km (75 miles) south of Isangel, Tanna, Vanuatu in the South Pacific, a quake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale.
• Sunday, 25 March: 00.42 GMT: one dead and about 150 injured in a quake near the west coast of Honshu, Japan, measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale, followed by aftershocks.
• Sunday, 25 March: 01:08:19 GMT (12:08:19 pm local time): about 135 km (85 miles) south of Isangel, Tanna, Vanuatu in the South Pacific, a quake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale.
 
• Wednesday, 15 August: 6:40 p.m. local time, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale in Peru, where many Roman Catholics were in churches celebrating the Assumption of Mary, killing more than 510 and injuring more than 1500.
 
• Monday, 1 October: the Antarctic sea ice reaches its all-time maximum as, at the same time, the Arctic sea ice reaches its minimum.
Sea-ice max and min.
 
• Wednesday, 14 November: an earthquake of 7.7 on the Richter scale strikes Chile killing two, causing much damage, and halting production at some of the world's largest copper mines. Aftershocks continue for days.
 
• Thursday, 15 November: the cyclone Sidr causes the death of more than 3,000 people in Bangladesh, with many thousands missing (including a number of fishermen), and affecting some 2.74 million people, with winds of 250kph (155mph) and a storm surge as high as 6 meters (20 feet) along the low lying coast.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 29,685
2008
• Saturday, 3 May: the devastating cyclone Nargis destroys part of Myanmar/Burma, particularly its rice-growing heartland, causing the death of up to 138,000 people but the military government, reluctant to allow foreign aid workers into the country, decides to go ahead with a May 10 political referendum, and maintains its isolationist attitude supported by China. Some foreign aid allowed in is re-labeled with the names of Myanmar's military rulers as though it is a gift from them.
• Monday, 12 May: a series of earthquakes, one as much as 8.0 on the Richter scale, strike across Eastern and Northern Sichuan, China, with its epicentre in Wenchuan County, killing more than 80,000 people, injuring more than 281,000, destroying about 80% of buildings, damaging about 400 dams, and displacing about five million people. Many schools collapsed in the quake, killing more than 9,000 students and teachers.
(The disaster area houses China's main nuclear weapons research lab in Mianyang, and several secretive atomic sites, but no nuclear power stations. In Sichuan's Shifang city, the quake buries hundreds of people in two collapsed chemical plants, and more than 80 tons of ammonia leaks out.)
• Saturday, 30 August: an earthquake of 6.1 on the Richter scale kills 36, injures hundreds, damages about 400 homes in West China's Sichuan and Yannan provinces.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 31,777

Myanmar Junta Criminals
2009
• Saturday, 3 January: an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale strikes off Indonesia's eastern coast, around 135 kilometres from Manokwari the capital of the province of West Papua, causing electricity blackouts and sending residents fleeing for high ground.
• Monday, 12 January: Durham University-led scientists use a computer model to analyse changes in Helheim Glacier, in southeast Greenland and conclude that Helheim which retreated by 7 kilometres (4 miles) over three years ending in 2005, losing 15 million tons more of ice than in 2000 at its peak (according to a February 2007 study in the journal Science) has since advanced about 4 kilometres, reversing the well publicized trend.
• Wednesday, 25 February: Shunichi Akasofu – Founding Director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) reports "It seems that global warming and the halting of the temperature rise are related to solar activity. Currently, the sun is "hibernating". The end of Sunspot Cycle 23 is already two years late: the cycle should have started in 2007, yet in January 2008 only one sunspot appeared in the sun's northern hemisphere, after that, they vanished completely (new sunspots have now begun to appear in the northern hemisphere). At the current time, it can clearly be seen there are no spots in the photosphere. Lately, solar winds are at their lowest levels in 50 years. Cycle 24 is overdue, and this is is worrisome. So, have there been other historical periods with an absence of sunspots? As a matter of fact, from 1650 to 1700 approximately, there were almost no sunspots. This time period has been named for the renown English astronomer Maunder, and is called the Maunder Minimum. "
• Monday 6 April: an earthquake strikes across central Italy at 03.42 of 6.3 on the Richter scale centring under the village of Onna near L'Aquila (northeast of Rome), lasting several minutes, which kills more than 278 persons, injuring several thousands and making more than 100,000 homeless.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 14,820
Global warming ended 2000!
2010
• Tuesday, 12 January: Earthquake strikes Haiti at 16:53 local, with magnitude of 7.0 killing about 230,000 people, injuring an estimated 300,000 and leaving about 1,000,000 homeless. Some right-wing Christians in the United States shamefully spread the rumour that am 18th century covenant with Satan was the cause of the earthquake, thereby dishonouring the authority of God over His creation. (See: What is Heaven For?).
• Saturday, 27 February: Earthquake strikes Maule, near Concepción, Chile, at 3.34 AM local, with a magnitude of 8.8, killing about 500 people, and tsunami warnings are issued for the whole Pacific.
• Monday, 8 March, 4:32 AM: Earthquake of magnitude 6.0 at a 5 kilometre depth strikes eastern Turkey near the Karakocan town in Elazig province, killing at least 51 people.
About 230,000 dead
  Earth-warming period is now expected to end, according to some scientists.
 
• November: The British government warns that this winter is expected to be the coldest since 1963.
• December: Total eclipse of the moon coincides with the solstice (the first time in 372 years).
• Britain experiences its coldest Christmas since 1890.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 21,473
See:
Earthquake statistics.
2011
• Monday, 21 February: Earthquake hits Christchurch, New Zealand, measuring 6.3 at 23:51GMT (12:51PM local) at a depth of only 4km (2.5 miles), killing 185 people and injuring many; the second such within five months. (New Zealand, which sits between the Pacific and Indo-Australian tectonic plates, records on average more than 14,000 earthquakes a year, of which about 20 would normally top magnitude 5.0).
Space-weather Alerts
See:
Japan Disaster
Timeline with photos
• Friday, 11 March: A huge earthquake strike north Japan at 5:46 GMT measuring 9.0 (the strongest in Japan since recording began) at a depth of 24km, triggering a major tsunami which struck the coast at nearly 10m, devastating huge areas, killing more than 18,000 and displacing more than 500,000 people. Many powerful after-shocks follow.
 
 
• Sunday, 23 October: Earthquake hits eastern Turkey, measuring 7.2 killing at least 270 and injuring many more.
Total number of earthquakes worldwide for the year: 22,288
 
2012
• January, 31: The asteroid 433 Eros passes safely at a distance of 26,778,019/16,639,090 miles (0.1790 astronomical units, or 70 times the distance of our moon).
 
2013
• February, 6, 01:12 GMT/UTC: Magnitude 8.0 earthquake strikes near the Santa Cruz islands, part of the Solomon Islands nation, killing at least five persons.
 
   
• February, 15, 03:20 GMT/UCT 09:20 local time: In Ural (Chelyabinsk) region, Russia – a meteorite explodes with the power of about 20 Hiroshima scale nuclear devices, injuring about 1200 people mainly from shattered glass. The shock wave damages about 3,000 buildings amid temperatures as low as minus 18 degrees Celsius (zero degrees Fahrenheit).
 
See:
Space Weather Now
 
• 19:24 GMT/UTC: An asteroid 2012 DA14 (discovered February 22, 2012, by La Sagra Sky Survey observatory, in the southeast of Spain, near Granada) passes earth at 27,700 km/17,200 miles, closer to earth than many TV and weather satellites and far closer than our moon, at a speed of up to 30,000kph/18,641mph. It's closeness to earth is believed to cause seismic tremours on the asteroid itself.
Watch
Asteroid Flyby live
(Asteroid 2012 DA14 has a very Earth-like orbit with a orbital period of 366.24 days, just one more day than our terrestrial year,
and it ‘steps’ inside and outside of the path of Earth twice per year, but the closeness of this passby has reduced its orbital period to 317 days).
USGS
Emergency Operations
• August 16: Across central New Zealand a magnitude of 6.5, strikes close to the South Island town of Seddon at 14:31 (02:31 GMT) and is followed by a 5.7 aftershock.
 
• September 11, 8.07 GMT/UT: A 400kg (63st) meteorite about a metre in diameter travelling at 61,000 km/h (40,000 mph) strikes the moon's surface punching a fresh crater about 40 metres wide in an ancient lava-filled basin called Mare Nubium.
 
• September 24: A 7.7-magnitude earthquake in a remote part of south western Pakistan (Baluchistan) kills 515 (Reuters), injuring at least 373, collapsing about 50% of the houses, and prompts a new island to rise from the sea just off the country's southern coast.
 
• September 28: A 6.9-magnitude earthquake strikes the same area of Pakistan, killing at least 15, and together leaving more than 100,000 people now homeless.
 
 
• October 12: at 13:11:52.40 UTC: Near Chania in Crete, Greece – A 6.4 quake strikes the region.
 
 
• October 15: near Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines (633 km/394 miles SSE of MANILA) at 00:12:37.20 UTC (8:12 AM local) a 7.1 earthquake strikes killing at least 183 people and destroying 8,600 homes in Quezon City.
 
Southern California
 Earthquake Center 
• October 26: near Fukushima Prefecture Coast, Japan, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake strikes 6.2 miles deep, about 231 miles east of the main Japanese island of Honshu (295 miles east northeast of Tokyo, 3:10 a.m. Saturday Tokyo time) about 290 kilometers off Fukushima.
 
• Friday, November 8: Typhoon Haiyan strikes the central Philippines with wind speeds of 235kph (147mph) gusting up to 275kph (170mph), with a storm surge of 6 meters (20 feet) killing more than 5,235 people and causing widespread devastation displacing about 3 million people.
 
ON A PLANET
  SET AS SEED-PLOT OF
  THE  UNIVERSE
 
• Sunday, December 15: China's first moon rover, Yutu (Jade Rabbit), separates successfully from it's parent spacecraft Chang'e-3 in the Bay of Rainbows (Sinus Iridum) on the lunar surface for its three month mission.
In South
Africa – Scientists from the University of the Witwatersrand prove that, despite predictions, tropical storms are not increasing in number and that while global warming is causing frost to be less severe, late season frost was not receding as quickly as flowering was advancing, thus debunking two significant climate change myths. Regarding data for the south-west Indian Ocean over the past 161 years, PHD student Jennifer Fitchett and Professor Stefan Grab confirm results of previous studies, which had found that there was no increase in the number of tropical cyclones and much of the perceived change in numbers was a result of improved storm detection methods.
2014 • Monday, January 13: A magnitude 6.4 earthquake strikes Puerto Rico at 04:01:04 UTC/GMT.
 
• Monday, January 20: North island New Zealand is rocked by a 6.3 magnitude quake 38km (24 miles) north-east of Masterton at 15:52 local time (02:52 UTC/GMT)
 
• Tuesday, February 25, at 2 a.m. UK time: asteroid 2000 EM26 (270-metres/885-ft wide) is due to fly past Earth about 2.1 million miles away, traveling at 27,000mph.
 
• Sunday night, March 9: Northern California is rocked by an undersea 6.9 quake 50 miles west of Eureka. No injuries or serious damage reported.
 
 
• Tuesday April 1: In Chile – A 8.2 magnitude earthquake strikes at 20.46 local off the coast 60 miles northwest of Iquique, triggering a tsunami and the evacuation of about 900,000 people.
 
 
• Friday May 30: In Indonesia – A volcano erupts explosively about 08:30 UTC on the island of Sangeang Api. A subplinian eruption column rose quickly to an estimated 50-65,000 ft (15-20 km) altitude and drifted several hundred km to the east and southeast. Ash fall is reported in areas up to 30 km downwind from the volcano. The island itself is largely uninhabited although visted by farmers who cultivate some land. Evacuations were ordered within 1.5 km radius from the volcano. Seismic activity preceding the eruption, including a nearby magnitude 4.5 earthquake at 03:05 UTC, was reported felt in the nearby city of Bima (Sumbawa Island) and even on Flores. (Today's explosion was the first at Sangeang Api volcano since its eruptions during 1997-99).
 
The
European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) warns of the strong possibility of a major drought in 2014 from a developing El Niño in the Pacific Ocean.
 
 
• Our sun's 11-year sunspot cycle is expected to peak and its magnetic poles reverse.
 

Free Disaster Recover Training
 
Earthquake Safety Tips Earthquake Recovery Resource Guide See: Earth Weather Action
US NASA
Mars Rover Curiosity

Water has been found in Martian soil:
each cubic foot of Martian soil
contains about two pints of liquid water,
but the molecules are not freely accessible,
as they are bound to other minerals in the soil.
 
 
Direct from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Broadcast by Ustream.TV
 
  – Watch Direct Engineering Camera Transmissions From Mars –  The End is not yet!

2126
•  August 14: The next perihelion of the comet 109P/Swift–Tuttle (its solid nucleus is about 27 kilometres/16.8 miles across) which is expected to be visible to the naked eye from earth. The past debris from this comet gives rise to the annual Perseid meteor shower which the earth passes through from mid July to early August each year.

 
4479
•  c.September 15: comet 109P/Swift–Tuttle is expected to return to our inner solar system.
 
Click for a broad range of sun-related information see: Solar Cycle 24 Data.
– See Also: Real Time World Wide Monitoring of Earthquakes –

Data compiled from many sources.
See: Insightful Article by Robinson, Robinson and Soon, of the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine.

Dr. D. Bruce Merrifield – Professor of Management Emeritus at the Wharton School of Business,
served in the Reagan Administration as Undersecretary of Commerce for Technology and Economic Affairs:
believes Global Warming is GOOD.

Global Warming and CO2
"research literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th Century have produced no deleterious effects upon global weather, climate, or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates. Predictions of harmful climatic effects due to future increases in minor greenhouse gases like CO2 are in error and do not conform to current experimental knowledge." (Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, 2001)
Crbon 14 fluctuations Before Present courtesy of Global Warming Art
[Graph-direction is reverse of left graph]
Commencing from the middle of the Little Ice Age (see 1550 AD above) from which we are probably still recovering.
Images created by Robert A. Rohde
Join: Oxford University's World Climate Prediction Experiment
time scale is reversed; with time increasing to the right to match the shorter-term temperature record plotting convention
Phanerozoic Eon temperatures

Copyright © Lloyd Thomas 2000-2014. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
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